The following paper is devoted to the comparison of the Eurasian (Sta — rostin, 1989), Austronesian and South Bahnaric proto-languages. Materials from Bushman (Khoisan) languages will also be added, although the recon­struction of the proto-Khoisan is at present lacking.

Eurasian comprises Nostratic, Semito-Hamitic, Sino-Caucasian. Alter­native names of NASCA was suggested by A. V. Korotayev (Kazankov, Korotayev, 2000) — abbreviation of Nostratic, Afrasian, and Sino — Caucasian). Still one name for this group is Paleolithic, suggested by VI. Orel (Orel, 1995a). In the present book I will use the term Eurasian.

Evidence for the genetic relatedness of the S.-h., Nostr., and SC proto­languages was presented by S. A.Starostin (Starostin 1989), V. Orel Orel, 1995a), and A. Kazankov (Kazankov, Korotayev, 2000). South Bahnaric is a branch of Austroasiatic and belongs, more specifically, to the Mon-Khmer linguistic family. South Bahnaric reconstructions were made by Yefimov (E) on the basis of Bahnar, Stieng, Mnong, Ma and Chrau. Austroasiatic is ge­netically related to Austronesian, (Reid, 1980; Blust, 1996) the two compris­ing Austric.

Austronesian reconstructions will also be added to the comparison when available. The suitable data from all languages and proto-languages will also be added. The main aim of the book is to show the specific relatedness be­tween Eurasian and Austric, as well as more close relatednes of the Khoisan to Eurasian.

At present Bengtson and Blazek suggested to call Sino-Caucasian «Dene-Basque» (including in it Basque, Na-Dene and Burushaski). They also proposed to rename North-Caucasian into simply «Caucasian» since South Caucasian has been proven non-existent. I agree with their sugges­tions, but since the bulk of the book was written in old terminology I will keep it.

Abbreviations and reconstruction symbols

Alt., A — Altaic proto-language

Amerind. — Proto-Amerindian

AS — Anglo-Saxon

AT — Proto Austro-Thai

Av.-And. — Avaro-Andian proto-language

Av. — Avar (belong to EC).

Bashk. — Bashkir

Bud. — Budukh language (b. to Lezghian group)

Chad. — Chadic proto-language Darg. — Dargin, Dargwa (b. to EC)

EC — Eastern Caucasian proto-language Engl. — English

Enis. — Eniseian proto-language Finn. — Finnish

FU — Finno-Ugor proto-language Germ. — German Hung. — Hungarian Icel. — Icelandic

IE — Indo-European proto-language Kartv. — Kartvelian proto-language

Khin. — Khinalug (a language that constitutes a separate branch of EC) Khm. — Khmer Kirg. — Kirghiz

Kushit. — Kushitic proto-language Lat. — Latin

Lezg. — Lezghi (b. to EC)

Lolo-Burm. — Lolo-Burman proto-language M. — Malay (Bahasa Indonesia variant)

ME — Middle English Mgs. — Malagasian Mong. — Mongolian Norw. — Norwegian

Nostr. — Nostratic proto-language (its reflexes formed Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Dravidan and Kartvelian linguistic families)

NC — North-Caucasian proto-language OC — Old Chinese PCh — Proto-Chukchee PK — Proto-Kushitic

PNP — Proto-Malayo-Polynesian [branch of An. (without the languages of Taiwan],

PPN — Proto-Polynesian Port. — Portuguese Proto-Lezg. — Proto-Lezghi PT — Proto Thai-Kadai

PTNG — Proto-Trans-New Guinean phylum (b. to Papuan languages entity) Ruk — Ruk (belongs to Viet-Mbiong group of the Mon-Khmer division of the Austroasiatic languages)

Russ. — Russian

SC — Sino-Caucasian proto-language Scrt. — Sanscrit

S.-h. — Semito-Hamitic proto-language ST — Sino-Tibetan proto-language T — Turkish

Tsez. — 1) Tsezi (b. to EC)

UL — Ur-Language (first «known» language of Homo sapiens sapiens) I beleive that UL (with dialects), existed in Levant about 40-45 ka (kiloyears ago). What kind of language existed before that time we can only guess, but, I am afraid, not from the data of comparative linguistic srtudies.

Ural., U — Uralic proto-language

WC — Western Caucasian proto-language

W.-Chad. — Western Chadic proto-language

* * *

A — Aleksandrova E. B (ed.) (2004). Finsko-russkij, russko-finskij slovar’ [Finnish-Russian and Russian Finnish Dictionaty] Sankt Petersburg: Viktorija pljus

AJHG — American Journal of Human Genetics

A1 — Aleksandravichjus Ju. (1984). Litovskij Jazyk [Lithwanian Lan­guage] Vilnjus: Mokslas

Am — Ambulas-English Dictionary (internet)

AnH — Anikin A. E., Helimskij E. A. (2007). Samodijsko — tunguso- manchzhurskije leksicheskije svjazi [Samodian-Tungus-Manchu Lexical Ties] Moskva: Jazyki slavjanskoj kul’tury

AR — Algebra Rodstva [Algebra of Kinship]. Vols. 1-8. (Ed. by V. A. Popov) St. Petersburg: Kunstkamera

BAR — British Archaeological Reports, Oxford

B — Bengtson, John D. Some Features of Dene-Caucasian Phonology with Special Reference to Basque // Cachiers de l’institut de Linguis — tique de Louvain (CILL) 30 (4): 33-54

( q=cache:VmEVTVwS7kJ:jdbengt. net/articles/C…)

CSAL — Matteson E., Wheeler A., Jackson F. L., Waltz N. E., Christian. (1972). Comparative Studies in Amerindian languages. The Hague-Paris: Mouton.

D — Dolgopolsky A. B. (1995). Sud’ba nostraticheskih glasnyh v indojev — ropejskomjazyke [Nostratic Vowels in Indoeuropean] //MLZH 1: 14-33.

D2 — Dolgopolsky A. B.

Da-Dahl O. C. (1973). Proto-Austronesian. Lund: Studentlitteratur. DDT — Thomas D. D. (1966). Mon-Khmer Subgroupings in Vietnam// Studies in Comparative Linguistics. London etc.: 194-202.

Do. — Dolgopolsky A. B. (1973). Sravnitel’no-istoricheskaja fonetika ku — shitskih jazykov [Comparative-Historical Phonology of the Kushitic Lan — guages]. Moskva: Nauka

D. — St. — Starostin S. A. (2008). Hurrito-urartskije i vostochnokavkazskije jazyki [Hurrito-Urartan and Eastem-Caucasian Languages] //S. A. Starostin. Trudy po jazykoznaniju [Language Studies]. Moskva: Jazyki russkoj kul’tury: 358-406

E — Yefimov A. Yu. (1990). Istoricheskaja fonologija juznobahnaricheskih jazykov [Historical Phonology of the South Bahnaric Languages]. Moskva: Nauka

ERS — Estonsko-russkij slovar’ [Estonian-Russian Dictionary], (Ed. by

B. Pravdin). Tallinn: Eesti riklik kiijastus

F-(1975). Finsko-Russkij Slovar [Finnish-Russian Dictionary]. (Ed. By V. Ollykainen and I. Salo), Moskva: GIINS

G — Gorgonijev Yu. A. (1975). Khmersko-russkij slovar’ [Khmer-Russian Dictionary]. Moskva: Russkij Jazyk

Gu-Aksenova I., Toporova I. (2008). Grammatika jazyka gusii [The Grammar of the Gusii language] Moskva: Academia

I — Interactive Dictionary of Guarani (Http://www. uni-mainz. de/cgi- Bin/guarani2/dictionarv. pi)

IJAL — International Journal of American Linguistics IP — On the Indo-Pacific Hypothesis of Joseph Greenberg

IRUS — (1964). Indonesijko-russkij uchebnyj slovar’ [Russian — Indonesian Learner Dictionary]. (Compiled by A. S.Teselkin and A. P. Pavlenko). Moskva: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija

IJAL — International Journal of American Linguistics. N. Y., Bloomington ISIKA — (2002). Istorija i semiotyika indejskih kul’tur Ameriki [History and Semiotics of the Indian American Cultures (ed. by A. A Borodatiova and V. A. Tishkov). Moskva: Nauka

JAA — Journal of Anthropoplogical Archaeology K — Suahili-russkij i russko-suahili slovar’ [Swahili-Russian and Rus­sian Swahili Dictionary]. (1965), (compiled by A. I. Kutuzov, ed. by Ali Dzhuma Zihideri). Moskva: Sovetskaja entsiklopedija

Ko — Davies, John. (1981). Kobon. Lingua Descriptive Studies. Vol. 3. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company

Ku — (1963). Russko-Finskij Slovar’ [Russian-Finnish Dictionary], (Ed. By M. E. Kuusinen), Moskva: GUNS

KRS-(1975). Khmersko-russkij slovar’ [Khmer-Russian Dictionary], (ed. by That’ Suong), Moskva: Russkij jazyk

L-The Learner s Russian-Hausa-Yoruba Dictionary. (1987). (ed. by

E. S. Arutjunova et al), Moskva: Russkij Jazyk

LRDIV — (1984). Lingvisticheskaja rekonstruktsija i drevnejshaja is­torija Vostoka [Linguistic Reconstruction and History of the Ancient East], (Ed. I. F. Vardul et al.) Vol. 4. Moskva: Nauka

M — MudrakO. A. (2000). Etimologicheskij slovar’ chukotsko — kamchatskih jazykov [Chukchee-Kamchatkan Etymological Dictionary], Moskva: Jazyki russkoj kul’tury

MgRS — Mal’agshsko-russkij slovar’ (1966). [Malagasian-Russian Dic­tionary], (Ed. by F. Rakutusona), Moskva: Sovetskaja entsiklopedija

Mi — Mliltarev A. Ju. Once more about glottochronology and the compara­tive method: the Omotic-Afrasian case

9http:// q=cache:7IQTFcIN8vMJ:starling. rmet. ni/Texts fl…

MiS — MilitarevA. Ju., Starostin S. A., (2008). Obshchaja afrazijsko- cevemokavkazskaja kul’tumaja leksika [Common Afrasian and North — Caucasian Lexics] II S. A. Starostin. Trudy po jazykoznaniju [Language Studies], Moskva: Jazyki russkoj kul’tury: 256-264.

MNM — Mify narodov mira [Myths of the Peoples of the World], (1992). (Ed by S. A. Tokarev). Vols. 1-2. Moskva: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija.

MRS — (2002). Bolshoj akademicheskij mongol’sko-russkij slovar’ [Large Academic Mongol-Russian Dictionary], (Ed. by G. Ts. Pjurbejev), Moskva: Academia

MS — Illich-Svitych V. M. (1967). Materialy k sravnitel’nomu Slovaru Nostraticheskih Jazykov [Materials to Comparative Vocabulary of the Nostratic Languages] //Etymologija 1965. Moskva, 1967: 321-373

MLZH — Moskovskij lingvisticheskij zhumal [Moscow Linguistic Journal] MRS — Mal’gashsko-Russkij Slova’ [Malagasian-Russian Dictionary], (Ed. by F. Rakutusona), Moskva: Sovetskaja entsiklopedija

Nik.-StNikolaev S. L, Starostin S. A. (1994). North Caucasian etymo­logical dictionary. Moscow

NRS — Nemetsko-Russkij Slovar’ (1992). [German-Russian Dictionary], Moskva: Russkij jazyk

NS — Nikolajev S. L., Starostin S. A. (2008). Paradigmaticheskije klassy indojevropejskogo glagola [Paradigmatic classes of the Indoeuropean Verb] // S. A. Starostin. Trudy po jazykoznaniju [Language Studies], Moskva: Jazyki russkoj kul’tury: 52-146 OL — Oceanic Linguistics

OMS — Hadrovics L., Gдldi L. (1986). Orosz-Magyar Szotar. Vols. I—II. Budapest: Akademiai kiado

OSNJA — Illich-Svitych V. M. (1971-1984). Opyt sravnenija nostraticheskih jazykov (semitohamitskij, kartvel’skij, indoevropejskij, ural’skij, dravidijskij, altajskij) [Results of the Nostratic Comparison (Semito-Hamitic, Kartvelian, Indoeuropean, Uralian, Dravidian, Altaic)]. Vols. 1-3. Moskva: Nauka

P-PolinskajaM. S. (1995). Jazyk niue [Niue language], Moskva: Vostochnaja literatura

PIDR-(2000). Problemy izuchenija dal’nego rodstva jazykov na rubezhe tretjego tysjacheletija (doklady i tezisy nauchnoj konferentsii) [Problems of the Long Range Language Comparison Studies at the Thresh­old of the Third Millenium (Reports and Summaries of the Conference)]. Moskva: RGGU — Jewish University in Moscow

Pn-Pokomy J. (1951). Insdigermanisches etymologisches Wцrterbuch. Bern and Mьnchen: Francke Verlag.

PN — Pottery Neolithic

Po — Pogadajev V. A. (2008). Indonezijsko-russkij i russko-indonezijskij slovar’ [Indonesian-Russian and Russian Indonesian Dictionary], Moskva: Russkij Yazyk Medija

PPN — Pre-Pottery Neolithic

PSP — Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific (ed. by W. H. Goodenough). Trans, of the Am. Philosophical Society. Vol. 86, Pt. 5. Philadelphia

PRS — (1972). Portugal’ sko-russkij slovar’ [Portuguese-Russian Dic­tionary], (Compiled by S. M. Starets, E. N. Feershtein). Moskva: Sovetskaja entsiklopedija

PSP — Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific (1996) // Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 86. Pt. 5 (Ed. by Goodenow et al.)

R-Jazyk ruk. Materialy rossijsko-vjetnamskoj lingvisticheskoj ekspeditsii [Ruk language. The Materials of the Russian-Vietnamese Linguis­tic Expedition]. Vol. 4 (ed. by N. V. Solntseva, Nguen Van Loi). Moskva: Vostochnaja literature

RBS — Russko-bashkirskij Slovar’ (1948). [Russian-BashkirDictionary]. (Ed. by N. K Dmitrijev et al.), Moskva: GIINS

RChS-.1 tiroyev I. Yu. (2005). Russko-Chechenskij Slovar’ [Russian- Chechen Dictionary]. Moskva: Akademia

RFS-Finsko-Russkij i Russko-Finskij Slovar’ [Finnish-Russian and Russian-Finnish Dictionary], (Ed. by Ye. B. Aleksandrova), Moskva: Vic — torija pljus

RHS — Russko-Hausa Slovar’ [Russian-Hausa Dictionary], (Ed. by Ado Gvadabe Kano), Moskva: Sovetskaja entsikloprdija

RK-RombandeevaE. I., KuzakovaE. A. (2000). Slovar’: mansijsko — russkij i russko-mansijskij [Mansi-Russian and Russian-Mansi Dictionary] Sankt-Peterburg: Prosveshchenije

RLFS — Russko4ingala-frantsuzskij slovar’ (1998). [Russian-Lingala- French Dictionary] (ed. by I. N. Toporova), Moskva: Institut jazykoznanija RAN RMgS — Russko-Malagasijskij Slovar’ (1970). Russian-Malagasian Dic­tionary], (Ed. by M. Rakutumangi), Moskva: Sovetskaja entsiklopedija.

RMS-Russko-mongol’skij Slovar’ (1960). [Russian-Mongolian Dic­tionary], (Ed. by G. D. Sandzheev). Moscow: GIINS RN — Ruhlen M.

RNS — Russko-Norvezhskij Slovar’ (1987). [Russian-Norwegian Dic­tionary]. (Ed. by S. S. Lunden and T. Mathiassen). Moskva: Russkij Jazyk RPS — Russko-Portugal’skij Slovar’ (1989). [Russian-Portuguese Dic­tionary] (Ed. by N. Ya. Voinova). Moskva: Russkij Jazyk

RShS — Russko-Shvedskij Slovar’ (1976). [Russian-Swedish Diction­ary] (Ed. by K. Davidson). Moskva: Russkij Jazyk

RtabS — Russko-tabasaranskij slovar’ (1988). [Russian-Tabasaran Dic­tionary] (compiled by V. M. Zagirov), Mahachkala: Daguchpedgiz.

RTS — Russko-tamil’skij Slovar’ (1965). [Russian-Tamil Dictionary], (Compiled by M. S. Andronov et al.). Moscow: Sovetskaja entsiklopedija RtuS — Ju. V Shcheka (2004). Russko-turetskij slovar [Russian-Turk Dictionary], Moskva: Vostok-Zapad

S — Starostin S. A. (1989). Nostratic and Cino-Caucasian //Explorations in Language Macrofamilies. (Ed. by V. Shevoroshkin). Bochum. Univer — sitatsverlag Brockmeyer: 42-66

Si.-SirkJu. H. (2008). Avstronesijskije Jazyki [Austronesian Lan­guages]. Moskva: Vostochnaja literatura

SiE — Starostin S. A., (2008). Prajenisejskaja rekonstruktsija i vneshnije svjazi jenisejskih jazykov [Proto-Yenisean Reconstruction and the External Ties of the Yenisean Languages] II S. A. Starostin. Trudy po jazykoznaniju [Language Studies], Moskva: Jazyki russkoj kul’tury: 147-246).

StE — Starostin S. A., (2008). Prajenisejskaja rekonstruktsija i vneshnije svjazi jenisejskih jazykov [Proto-Yenisean Reconstruction and the External Ties of the Yenisean Languages] II S. A. Starostin. Trudy po jazykoznaniju [Language Studies. Moskva: Jazyki russkoj kul’tury: 147-246)

Ta-Talibov B. B. (2007). Budukhskij jazyk [Budukh language], Moskva: Akademija.

U — Gromova N. V., Petrenko N. T. (2004). Uchebnik jazyka suahili [Textbook of the Swahili], Moskva: MGU-MGIMO.

UCPL = University of California Publications in Linguistics.

VJA — Voprosy Jazykopznanija [Journal of Linguistics], Moskva.

WM — Mify narodov mira [Myths of the Peoples of the World. (1992). (Ed by S. A. Tokarev). Vols. 1-2. Moskva: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija

Y — Heerschen V. (1992). A Dictionary of the Yale (Kosarek) Language. 22 Beitrag zur Schriftenreiche Mensch, Kultur und Umwelt im Zentralen Bergland von West-neuguinea. Berlin: Dietrich Reimar Verlag

Younger Edda Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. (1931). Udg. efter hдndskrifteme for det Amamagnaennske Legat ved Finnur Jonsson. Koben — havn

Z-Zubko G. V. (1980). Fula-russko-frantsuzskij slovar’[Fula-Russian- French Dictionary] Moskva: Russkij Jazyk

A number in brackets after the marking of the «narrow» linguistic classi­fication of an etymon signifies belonging of a family to one of the eight maximal broad linguistic macro-phila:

(1) — NASKA (SH, SC, Nostr);

(2) — Khoisan (Bushman);

(3) — Austric [(Austroasiatic and Austro-Thai (Austronesian and Thai-Kadai)];

(4) — Amerind;

(5) — Nilo-Saharan;

(6) — Niger-Kordofan;

(7) — Australian;

(8) — Indo-Pacific (Andaman and Papuan languages).

The idea that all human languages can be group in only eight superfila belongs to Vaclav Blazek. He expressed it to me in private communication at the Moscow comparative conference in the summer of 2001.

Abbreviations for Khoisan (Bushman) languages (fromBleek, 1956: iii — iv) are like follows:

Northern group

N1 //k”au-//en auen a dialect of! kiuj.

AANII; for more detailed mapping see Barnard, 1992

NIa nogau a dialect of! kiuj. Nil

N11 !kь, Ikiiij self-name — Zu/hoдsi, most studied Bush­

Man population

Nila hei//kum near Etosha pan (Namibia)

Nllb a dialect of! kiuj (!kung) from Ovanboland (northern Na­


Nile a dialect in Ukualutu, Namibia

NIII! o !kung a dialect of! kung (Eastern Angola)

Southern Group

SI /xam northern part of Cape province (in

D. F.Bleek’s book here (p.) is a misprint: N1)

Sla //ij a dialect of /xam

Slla khomani southern Kalahari (R. S.A.)

Sllb //khau Kimberly region (R. S.A.)

SIIc //ku//e southern Kalahari (R. S.A.)

Slid seroa southern part of Orange Free State (province

Of R. S.A.).

Slle! gд! ne Transkei, i. e. south-eastern part of R. S. A.

SIII batwa eastern Transvaal, near lake Chrissie

SIV auni (/auni) southern Kalahari (Botswana)

SIVa khatia (xatia) southern Kalahari (Namibia)

SIVb ki/hazi southern Kalahari (Namibia)

SV masarwa southern Kalahari (Botswana)

SVI /nu //en southern Kalahari (Namibia)

SVIa /nusan southern Kalahari (Namibia)

Central group

Cl hie, hictjwarc. masarwa Zimbabwe (near lake Tati)

Cla sehura Botswana

CIb mohissa Botswana

CII naron, //aikwe Botswana (near to «auen» (N1))

Clla tsaukwe Botswana

Cllb hukwe Kaprivi strip (Namibia)

CIII hadza northern Tanzania

/ — dental click, // — lateral click, f — alveolar click, ! — alveolar-palatal (cerebral) click.

C reflects lahringalization of the preceeding vowel, — high tone,_ — low tone, L — flapped retroflex consonant (Bleek, 1956: iv).

Languages of Central group are distantly related to Northern and South­ern groups. The latter are much more closely related to each other. Hadza belongs to Central group. All further references will be given in these sym­bols by pages of: (Bleek, 1956).

Other phonetic symbols.: u means Russian y, 0- «high» o (between o and a), p means dot over phoneme. These symbols may be replaced with standard signs of the IFA: /’ crossed, semi-circle, and a dot over a phoneme. Q is a specific FU phoneme sounding similar to Russian w (y). A of Illich — Svitych’s texts corresponds to more oftenly used V (a reconstructed vowel), e. g. KirhA «old» (OCHil 165) may also be written as KirhV. Some spellings are given in cyrillics. Such cases are marked.

* * *

We should put before the list of comparisons a couple of methodological considerations:

1) In the Nostratic list of V. M. Illich-Svitych much more than half of the reconstructions have CVCV structure. Extra-linguistic considerations prompt us that at the earlier levels of language development such structures should have been even more abundant than in Nostratic. This consideration narrows the scope of all possible phonetic combinations for the UL.

2) If we assume that all present languages ultimately stem from one UL (with dialects), then with certain probability the reflexes of this language can be found in any recorded language and we should not neglect this possibility in the process of the far-ranging linguistic comparison. Let us first take, for example, the word «lizard».

1. LIZARD In the NC etymological dictionary NC form for «lizard» is reconstructed as *cVrcV (Nik-St.: 348). We view the probability of the exis­tence of such a form as low, taking into consideration the following: In Lezghi and closely related Tabasaran «lizard» sounds as curcul, in proto Dargin — as *cicala (ibid.). This practically coincides with the Proto-Finno — Ugor «lizard» — *c’Qc3l (Teplyashina, 1978: 776). The probability of the mutual borrowing between NC and FU is about zero, and the probability of their chance coincidence will diminish to about the same level if we consider the following (all etymons mean «lizard» unless otherwise specified):

Norw.: firfisle — a (RNS: 847), compare with other Lezghi etymon: fifil (Nik.-St.: 763);

Bashkir: logspniKe (kscsrtke) (RBS: 898);

Kirgiz: KecxejidupuK (keskeldirik) (Russko-Kirgizrskij Slovar’, 1960: 983);

Amerind: Hoka: Kokopa: kwacul (Crawford, 1976: 183);

Uto-Aztecan: Panamint-Shoshone (Tiimpisa): chuckwalla (Dayley, 1984: 464);

Penuti: proto Miwok-Wintun: *cVkw(i/a)X — (Broadbent, Pitkin,

1964: 40).

We may also notice that the etymons presented above have some possible phonetic connection with Nostr. *kutA «snake» (OSNJA 179), compare also: An. *kalati «worm» (P 198). If we add to the analyses Nostr.*/7 ra «short» (OSNJA 244) and *kUtA «small» (OSNJA 205), we may propose for the UL a hypothetical form *kukula, «lizard», literally: «small (short) snake».

Another example that might be added to M. Ruhlen’s list (Ruhlen, 1991) is UL *baba h *tata, with tentative meaning (with derivates) «father» within nuclear or small extended family. We list them, as the rest of the material, without pretence at formulating any rule of regular correspondence.

2. FATHER 1 *aba

3. FATHER 2 *tata

S.-h.(l): *?ab — «father» (Orel 1995a, 1). (all other etymons here mean «father» unless otherwise specified):

Nostr.(l): Alt(l): *ap’a (Dybo, 2000b: 46).

Mansi(l) (b. to Uralic) at’ (RK: 183).

IN(1) *ata /pater. *pater is possibly an innovation in IE taking into ac­count complexity of their ethnic origin (Dolgopolsky 1995). This circum­stance is possibly reflected in Hettan attta, Slavic *otici, Gothic atta (Ben — venist, 1995: 147) as well as in Albanian ate (~ — i) (Zhugra, 1998: 177, 180), and Dardian material.

Dardian(l) (including Nuristani languages) reflexes are:

Kati: tot- (nominal case, p. 35), Vaigah. tato (p. 45), Pashai. tat — (p. 106), Kalasha: dada (p. 122), Khovar: tat (p. 132), Torvali: boba (p. 134), Bashkarik: bab- (p. 141), Garvi: bab — (p. 144), etc. (pages are given by: (Eidelman, 1965). In other words in Dardic we also have either *tata (tata), or *baba.

SC(1): *?opV(j) (Starostin, 1984, 2.5), or?6pV(jV) (Nik.-St: 1385); ST *paH, Enis. *?ob (Starostin, 1984, 2.5).

NC *dajV «father, mother». Reflexes: NaAsh.*dad(a) «father», Av.- And. *dadV «father», Lak t:at:a «grandfather», Darg. *t:ut:e(s) «father», Lezg. *dadVj «father, grandfather», Khin. dada «mother», WC *t:at:V «grandfather, father (daddy)» (Nik.-St.: 397-398).

Austroasiatic(3): Mon-Khmer: SB *ba:p; North Bahnaric *?a:?, Kua vaq, Mon apa, Old Khmer vapa; Munda: Kharia aba, Bonda ba?,

(Efimov, 1990: 120). A. Efimov notes that SB *ba:p is hardly genetically related to these forms, but the rest of them are quite likely to stem from *aba.

Austronesian(3): Javan, Malay, Ngadju Dayak: bapa. (Dahl, 1973: 105).

Thai-Kodai(3): Thai (3) pho, Bo-ai po, Lunchzhou po (Goh — man 1992: 15).

Indo-Pasific(8): (Papuan): Abelam apA; Awa (Eastern Highlands) nanibo «my father» (Leontjev, 1974: 83, 78), Bongu ab (Kryukov, 1975: 194).

Australian(7): Dharaval baba (Blake, 1981: 122-123). In most of the Pama-Nyungan «father» sounds like mama. Phonetic development of b > m can not, however, be excluded.

Amerind(4): Kiowa-Tanoan: Kiowa: ta, Tanoan: Jemes: ta-e, Taos: to; Uto-Aztecan: *tawa; Aztec-Tanoan: *taijw;a «man, father» (Greenberg, 1987: 127).

Penuti(4): Miwok: Central Sierra:g? e; Gulf: Natchez: ?pis (Green­berg, 1987: 150).

Pra-Amerind(4): *apa — > Proto-Arawak *a/p-apa-ti, Proto-Pano *papa, Proto Tupi-Guarani *a-pai-N, Proto-Tukano *pa(?)-kbi, Proto — Harabut *aapam, Proto-Guahibo *p-axa, (Matteson, 1972A, 288; Matte — son, 1972B, 126; Christian, Matteson, 1972, 52).

Pra-Amerind(4): *ta(i)ta > Kamsa taita, Proto-Chibcha *(ha-)tai- (kV-)ta, Guambino tata «chief», Proto-Walapai *tdl, Proto-Maya *tat, Proto-Oto-Mange *(Y)ta(h), Paez tata, Proto-Takano *tata, (Matte­son, 1972A, 290;).

Proto Athapaskan(4)*-fa? (Dyen, Aberle, 1974: 448).

Quechua(4) tayta «father» (Parker, 1969: 203).

Nilo-Saharan(5): Nubian (Dongola dialect): bab (Zavadovskij, Smagina, 1986: 45), Kanuri, Kanembu: bawa (Bondarev, 1998: 143, 147). According to A. V. Dybo Sarahan languages probably form a subgroup of Afrasian (Dybo, 2000).

Niger-Kordofan(6): Atlantic languages: Bullom ba (Pozdnyakov, 1993: 155); Kru: Yoruba: baba (Yakovleva, 1963: 58); Bantu: Swahili: baba «father» (Ohotina, 1974: 12), Lingala: tata (Toporova, 1974: 33), Ku — ria: tata (Aksenova, Toporova, 1994: 44).

Bushman(2) SI: ibo, da, bobo, tata (pi); SII: ad, ba:ba; SVI da, tata; N1, N11: ba’, NIII: be’, Cl: bara, bae; CII: auba, aba, a:we’, Khoikhoi (Nama): eib, Tb. According to Meindorf Nama forms are: ’abob, ’Tb, //ub (Bleek, 1929: 37).

Sumerian(?) aba (apa, apu, ad) (Djakonov, 1998: 112).


(under this title we group lexic items which were desacralized and made «idecent» at least in the languages of the cultures with ideological dominance of such World religions as Christianity or Islam)

4. HOLE: Possibly this term was counterposed in UL to *xir / xer «man, fallos, horn» (see 6. PHALLOS 1).

5. -h.(l) *gir — / *gur — «hole, well», EC *кмэ1ги «pit, hole», ST *ghuar «id.» (Orel 1995a, 49); EC *xaro «chink» (Nik.-St.: 1060).

Bushm.(2) iee «pit, hole»(CI: 68),je, jenaa «pit, hole in the earth» (CII: 72), кого «pit» (Cl: 101), кого «game pit» (Cla: 103), zo:e «cave, hole in the earth» (SVI: 265), /huru «pit, burrow, animal’s den» (SI: 291), koa, s. kou, k? o «hole, cave» (SI: 437), !кого kou «pit, grave» (Nil: 433), //kauru «hole, hollow» (SI: 562), llkarru «pit» (SII: 559), //kerru «hole in the nape of the neck» (!, A. K.) (SI: 570), фхагге «to make a hole» (Nil: 678), xarro «dig» (SVI: 257) etc.

Malay(3) gua «cave, burrow, den (Hohle)» (Krause, 1978: 340).

5. MUSHROOM: (fly-agaric in pagan religions is a shaman’s mush­room, hallucinogen, phallic symbol and alongside with the tree — a symbol of three-fold division of the Universe).

EC (1) *shw~3mkV (—?-) «mushroom, tinder» (Nik.-St.: 960-961), Lak-Lezg.-Khin. isogloss *swimHV «three» (Nik-St.: 978), Av.-And.-Tsez isogloss *swinkV «mouth» (Nik-St.: 978); Kartv. *soko — «mushroom»; IE *spwongo-«idi.» (Nik.-St.: 961). The authors comment: «We must note that however improbable it seems, the form *sphwongo — lies very closely to the reconstructed PEC *shw~3mkV» (Nik.-St.: 961).

We believe this note to be an uncorrected trace of S. A. Starostin’s for­mer view of the lack of genetic relationship between IE and NC. He stated this view in 1988 (Starostin, 1988), while in 1989 (Starostin, 1989) becom­ing a pioneer of the discovery of their genetic relationship presenting more than 200 cognates. Linguists from the comparativist department of Russian State University for Humanities (RGGU) told me that the apparent contradic­tion between the these two views are due to a considerable delay in printing of the first book.

We may add that at least one of the Khoisan languages contributes to demonstrate lack of fortituity in coincidence of the EC, IE, and Kartvelian forms.

Bushm.(2). samaka «three» (CIII: 163), lluaka «id.» (SIVb: 627). We may also add here a «tungussian» word shaman with still unclear etymologi­cal roots.

SB(3) *ssmbat «handful, fist» (E 112). Fist resembles in its form a head of a mushroom.

6. PHALLOS 1: Common origin with this etymon possibly have (in a number of languages) etymons with meaning «horn, homed animal», «male», «root», «break», «hole» etc.

Nostr.(l) *KErA «horn» (OS 227), *Hera «male» (OS 108); *Kiru «deer» (D 43); S.-h. *kar — «horn»; SC *qwVrHV«id.» (Orel 1995a, 86), NC *HirbvE «man, male» (Nik.-St.: 579), Burushaski(l) hir «id.» (Grune 1998: 5). According to Blazek and Bengtson (Blazek, Bengtson 1995) Bu — rushaski belongs to Dene-Bask (SC+ Burushaski, Dene and Basque) philum.

M.(3) her as «hard» (Teselkin, Pavlenko 1964: 192); An(3) *(q)uRutj «horn, antler» (Sagart2002: 3).

Semantic tie between «horn» and «hard», reflected in the phonetic simi­larity retained not only in English and Malay, but, eg. in the Chechen as well: Chechen nlozla [coga] «hard» (RChS: 669).

Southern Slavic(l), Kashubian, Russian (Archangelsk dialect) *kur «phallus» (Loma, 1997); Ancient Egyptian Xara (Xor) «diety name» (Pere — pelkin, 2000: 65, 303).

Bushm.(2) llkoro «horns» (SI: 587), llkoro «nail, nails» (Slla: 587). See also NAIL 1. in part II of the present paper.

PPN(3) *ure / *uri «phallus» (A. Davletshin, personal communication).

Ambulas(5) kaara «male, tusk, horn» (Am: 29). Ambulas (Abelam) is a Papuan ethnic group in Papua New Guinea.


S.-h.(l)* cer — «root», EC * cciw-HV «root, seed» (Orel 1995a, 36), Nostr.(l) *zir[a] «root» (D 42).

Bushm.(2)!/i’flc’ rr/7)o «long edible root» (CII:410), llkari, h. Ilkerri «root fibres» (N1: 559), Ikhuri «seed kern» (Cl: 314) Ilkerri, h. Ilkeri «root» (NIII: 570), Ikyrri «sinew» (SI: 336).

Commentary: In Nostratic or its dialectic predecessors which existed in territories where horse was a common animal and an object of hunt and ergo — an object of worship the term *Kiru «deer» had a pair analogous to NC *hbincwV «horse». S. A. Starostin compared NC *hbincwV with IE *ekuo (Starostin 1988, 1.2). Busman possible cognates are: Igoe, s. Igwa, Igwe «quagga, zebra» (Nil, N1, CII: 281), /lore. Ikwe: «quagga» (Nil: 332), llkoah, llkuih, s. Ilkoi «id.» (SI: 583, 585, 591).

Proto SC (with dialects) had possibly an etymon *xircwV with seman­tics («deer, stag» etc.) similar to that of the Nostratic etymon. It survived in NC as*HirkwE «man, male» (see above).


S.-h.(l)*/ar — «break, tear», Nostr.(l) *paf[a] «tear, break, split», ST(1) *phraj «split, divide» (Orel 1995a, 41).

Bushm.(2) koa «break, finish»(CII: 96), Ikhuru «break, split up» ( SI: 314),/k”werri «break off» (SI: 340), !kau: «cut, skin, break» (SII: 411).

Possible sexual connotations of this etymon seem to be evident.

7. PHALLOS 2 (semantically connected with «stick, finger, plough, head, mouth», and, surprisingly, with «white, shine»):

Russian(l) palka «stick», palets «finger», palitsa «club»; Scrt. *phalaka — «board, stick» (Semerenyi 1980: 81); S.-h. *pi’a «rain», Nostr. *pi’a[q]a «rain» (Orel 19956: 40); Engl, plough, Russian плуг «id.»; Greek phallos «phallus», pharos «lighthouse»; Spanish boqa «mouth»; Arabian fuh — «mouth» (I. Alexeev, personal communication); Hung, (vulg.) fossz «phallus» (I studied Hungarian for three years and lived in Budapest five months), Lezg. vass «phallus» (E. F.Kisriev, personal communication).

Austroasiatic.(3): Khm. phlietj «rain» (G: 517), SB:: Sedang pleng «sky», Katu pleng «id.», Brou paloang «id.».

An.(3) *palu «to hit, strike» (P 73).

Ling.(4) mbula, mpela «rain» (RLFS: 113), mbeli «knife» (ibid.: 214).

Gusii(4) — ara (eki-) «finger» (Gu.: 31).

Andamanese(8): Great Andaman: Aka Biada Puluga-da

«God»(associated with monsoon torrents), Onge JJluge «id.» (Portman, 1887: 34).


Nostr.(l) *balka «to shine», S.-h. *balag- «to light» (Orel 1995a, 11).

ST(1) *P():k «white» (Starostin 1989, 1).

SB(3) *b0:? «white» (E: 15), Austroas.(3) *Ьэ1ак(Kruglyj-Enke, 2.25).

An.(3) buraq «white» (P 188).

Ling. (4) — bald «to light»,polele «light (adj.)» (RLFS: 306), pelO «pale» (RLFS: 47).


1) Semantic connotations of phallos, stick and plough are obvious.

2) Semantics of «white, shine» (see WHITE) are paralelled e. g. in Greek phallos, pharos or in shining phallos linga of the Hinduistic God Shiwa (Grintser 1992: 643-644; Kochergina 1996: 554), See also ASH,


UL *pala might have been associated not only with stick, but with lightning as a phallos of a thunder cloud.

UL *bala «to shine, white».


3) «Mouth» may be connected with «phallus» through intermediate se­mantic unit «head», since the later also is an ancient phallic symbol, but more likely there were two words in UL: *pala «stick», phallos and *paka «head», see below.


Bashkir(l) bas «head» (RBS: 140), Spanish boca «mouth» (Galdi, 1987: 588).

Finn.(l) pad «head» (A: 213), Hung.(l) fej «id.»

Nakh-Lezg. isogloss(l), (b. to EC) *bekw3 (—o) ! «part of face, mouth» (Nik.-St.: 289).

SB(3) bol «head» (E 100), Brou(3) bouq «id.».

An(3) *baSaq «mouth» (P 99), Taitian(3) ‘vaha «mouth» (Arakin, 1981: 16); Siam(3) pak «mouth», Lunchzhou(3) pak «id.» Bo-Ai(3) pak «id.» (Gohman 1992: 15).

Swahili(4) puci «nose» (U 281).

4) «Rain possibly sounded in UL as *palaka, see Nostr., Andamanese and Russian plakat’ [(the etymology of the latter going to «beat onelelf on the chest, moan» with parallels in (Fasmer)].

We can thus suggest two types of rain concepts in UL: one for gentle, drizzle type rain, and the other — for the stormy rain, hurricane, that beats ground with «sticks» (UL *pala) of water. Again we have here postfixes *- ka / -*nga, see FINGER, FOREST.

4) From the same root might have originated SH *pilak — «knife, axe», EC *bbi(i)lgwV«hammer», Enis. *pu? ul «id.» (Orel, 1995a, 128), Malay(3) palu «id.»,pukul «id.» (IRUS: 295, 327).



Fulbe(4) muddo «a stupid one» (Z: 360).

Ling.(4) motu «stupid» (PLFS: 94).

Ambulas(5) maade «castrated pig» (Am: 47).

UL *muda «testicles, balls». See commentaries to EYE 2.


Ambulas (Abelam) is a Pauan (Trans-New-Guinean phliae) language.

9. BUTTOCKS (with semantically connected «frog, toad, pit, turtle (tortoise), robe, etc.):

Nostr.(l) *gop[u] «empty, hollow», IE «hollow, pit» (D 139); Nostr. *gupA «to bend», IE *gheub-«id.» (D 93, sexual semantic connotations see below and VULVA); Ancient Indie *yabu «have sexual intercourse» (D. N. Leluhin, personal communication) See also: Russ, zhopa «ass, but­tocks», zhaba, «toad».

Bushm.(2) ijupe «buttocks» (CIII: 237).


EC.(l) *GHwopa «frog» (see Commentary below).

Bushm: (2) gui «large frog» (CII: 50), kwee «bull-frog» (Cl: 112), wa, wai^ «frog» (Nil: 251), xobe, ghobe «id.» (Cl: 260), ga «frog, toad» (SI: 374), _gwe:ba, s. !ga «frog» (CII: 392), llga:ba «id.» (CII: 523).

Commentary: In 1988 S. A. Starostin compared IE *gueb(h)- / *guob(h)- «frog, toad», EC *GG(w)VIp ’V «frog, kind of worm» and Kartv.:

Laz mzvabu and Megrel z>abu (Starostin, 1988, 1.9). Similarity of the IE and EC etymons was explained by EC substrate in Indoeuropean, while similarity of Kartvelian forms remained unexplained.

In the NC etymological dictionary of 1994 the following forms are given: NC *qwVrVqV, «frog» (Nik.-St.: 942), EC (Nik.-St.: 459).

The form *GHwopV is given with the changed semantic reconstruction: «kind of worm, reptile» and is absent in the semantic index under the titles «frog, toad». Reflexes of the lower level are: Nakh *qope «trichina, worm», Av.-And.^. wffeГ ’«malaria», Lezg. *q:Iop «frog» (Nik.-St.: 460).

Taking into account the Khoisan data and other material given above we suggest to return to the initial semantic reconstruction: EC *GIf\’opl’«frog» and accept NC, IE, and Khoisan etymons as stemming from the more an­cient common form.


Бушм.(2) к’ ‘aCa «insect» (N1: 124), k"0be «tortoise» (CIII:124), /каСррэт «tortoise, Testudo geometric/ tentoria» (SI: 301), Igoi^e s. goai, gwai, «tortoise, tortoiseshell» (SI: 385), goQ? eiQ s. goai, gwai, IgoQe «tor­toise» (Slla: 385), llgwa: //go: «id.» (N1: 537), _llgwe:ba «id.» (CII: 538), llkoa «id.» (N11: 583), Hk"upe «id.» (СІП: 609) etc.

Niger-Congo (5)

Swahili kobe «turtle» (K: 500), ling, nkoba «id.» This is a Pan —

African etymon (cf. Bengtson).


Bushm.(2) kwobba «skin petticoat worn by women on the back» (SI: 468), llgabe «small kaross or petticoat of woman, worn on the back under big kaross, hanging from the waist» (SV: 523). Reflexes like Spanish гора «dress» possibly in the end originate from etymons that once designated similar female dress elements. See also:

Nostr.(l) *Kapa «to close, to cover» (Orel, 1995, 68).

S B(3) *kh ’ro:p «to cover, lid» (E 414).

10. VULVA:

UL *puti «vulva» (RN 39; Proto-World Language, 21).

S.-h.(l) * fit — «hole, vulva»; Nostr. *putV «hole»; SC *pVtV «hole, vulva», Lolo-Burm. *pvtx «id.» (Orel 1995a, 44).

Nostr. *pu/t/A «hole, vulva, anus»; Amerind.(6) *petl’«vagina» (RN 39).

To this may be added IE *plzda «weibliche Scham» (Pn: 831), cf. Russ, пизда (pizda) «vulva», пещера (peshchera) «cave», pakhat’ (to «plough»; Hungarian picza (picO) «id.», Engl, pit, bitch [(compare. Nakh — Lezg. isogloss *bls7 «pussy-cat» (Nik.-St.: 305)], Spanish bicho «worm, passive homosexual», putana «prostitute»; EC *piiji / *buti «genitals, usu­ally female» (Nik.-St.: 876-877), Lezg. — Av.-And. isogloss *pazo (-z-, -3-) «hut, cabin» (Nik.-St.: 867); Semantic connotation of the latter may be sug­gested through «cave», remnant of the older notion of the sacred dwelling symbolizing Mother-Earth Goddess. See also Quechua paca mama «Mother-Earth» (Parker, 1969: 158).

Bushm.(2) /hoti «buttocks» (SIV: 289), /utu «same» (SII: 360), budi, bu:e «hole, burrow» (CIII: 18).


1) Among Bushmen as well as Australian Aborigines a man during coi­tus took position «from the rear». Bushmen, or at least Zu /lioansi (!kung) of the so-called Nyae Nyae region (Namibia) in the 1950-ies considered but­tocks to be associated with sex. Uncovering buttocks was considered (for women) as an act of indecent behavior (Marshall,

2) In Bushman languages, apart from Hadzapi (CIII) and Hictjwarc (Cl) initial b oxp is very rare (Bleek, 1956: 13). We believe that (since Bushmen languages evolved like pigins) these phonemes in the donor-languages at the time of the formation of the Khoisan proto-languages were substituted by combinations of clicks and guttorals.


11. ANGRY:

S.-h(l) *kar — /*kor — «be angry», EC(1) *qwaII? V «anger, offence, gos­sip», ST(1) *q(h)al «to argue, argument» (Orel 1995a, 73), Nostr. *korA «anger, offence» (OS 172).

Bushm.(2) khai «to be angry with smb.» (Cl: 88), khaijo, s. khaj, khaija «anger, irritation» (Cl: 88).


Nostr.(l) *?ili «deer» (Orel 1995a, 7).

Chechen(l) saj «deer» (RChS: 381), dijnat«animal» (RChS: 169).

SB(3) *jll «barking deer» (E 278).

Ling.(4) mbuli «antelope» (RLFS: 33).


Nostr.(l) *gurHa, *gUira «antelope, animal», S.-h. *gur — «antelope, calf» (Orel 1995a, 53).

SB(3) *jjbir «deer, stag» (E 357).

Nostr.(l) *wiHrV «man, male» (MS 362; D 37).

Nostr. wo/(/)F«big» (D 149), Nostr. *&o/F «round», IE *kwel — «round, to turn» (D 142), Nostr. *wal/e/m «right, right side» (Orel, 1995b, 53); NC *g)rerl’ «circle, round, to roll» (Nik.-St.: 447), NC *wir3gkA «sun» (Nik.- St.: 1051).

IE *uero-s «truthful, truly» (Pn: 1165); *uerg-s-, uer-k-«drill, twist» (Pn: 1154-5), Germ, wirken «to act», Engl. work. Chechen 6axrb Jibyu «truthful: (RChS: 492), Saicbdepz «truth» (ibid.: 491).

Bushm.(2) kwerrekwerre «round» (SI: 113).

SB(3) ws:r «miracle, taboo» (E 114).


I do not propose that all Nostratic etymons listed above originated from one more ancient common form. I would rather propose a hypothetic consid­eration that some of them may be semantically connected oppositions with either initial g or w. On the other hand, Nostr. *wol(l)V«big», kolV «round», and *wallelm «right, right side» may have originated from UL *Kona «sun», the latter personified as a bull or large antelope (see SUN). As to semantic connotations between «work» and «drill»-these are based on the process of the firemaking by quickly tumung of a firestick. It is indeed an intense labor per se. See also TURN.


Nostr.(l) *KawingA «armpit» (OSNJA 330); SH *gen- «hand», NC *ggIwunV«hand, shoulder», Enis. *ken — «shoulder», Old Chinese *ken

«id.» (Orel, 1995a, 48).

Bushm.(2) xlai]gaxlai]ga pi. «opening between toes» (CIII: 259). This term we have put here only to demonstrate a nga suffix.

An(3) *qabin «carry under the arm» (Blust 1980, 2).

Commentary: Taking into account Nostr. *kolV «round, to turn» (D 142), SB *wil «round», Nicobarese kavi:ls, «id.», Santali kawal, keval, kivil «twisting» (Yefimov, 1990: 109), An. *kavil «fish-hook» (Dahl, 1973: 43), and NIGHT, FINGER, FOREST, TO TURN we may suggest for the Nostr. KawingA the following semantic reconstruction «spirit of the shoulder pit». Then for the UL «shoulder will be *kawr, *nga «spirit».

Of some interest to compare are also WOMAN and LEFT.

15. ARROW:

S.-h.(l) *cil — «arrow», EC(1) cmlbi «arrow, point», ST(1) sal «sharp, point» (Orel, 1995a, 29).

Bushm.(2) wa: La «iron tip of the spear» (N11: 183), ula, s. orra, wa:_La «arrowpoint of the assagai (spear-A. K.) type» (N11: 183), llkhoro «arrow» (N11: 589), _llkowa, s. Jlkoa «arrow» (SIV: 589), //xe:/a, s. Ilx:e~lla «reed, arrow» (SII: 635).

PMP(3) *suhm needle, pierce» (Kullanda 1992: 44).

Ling.(4) likula (-ma) (a. o. forms) «arrow» (RLFS: 327).

Commentary: etymological ties with (ARROW), (SHARPEN) and (NAIL 1) are possible.


Nostr.(l) *lamV «ash, coals», S.-h.(l) *lam- «id.» (Orel 1995b, 28); NC(1) *HдmpV (Nik.-St.: 543). Note: Av.-and. *habu and Tsez.*hamu, as well as Hung. hOmu (in Hungarian orphography — hamu «ash») are closer to the Nostratic, SB and An. forms. There are no examples of the proposed mp>b, mp>b regular correspondence in (Nik.-St. 1994).

SB(3) *bu:h «ash» (E 203).

An.(3) *abu(S) «id.» (P 4).

An. *lima «five, hand» (P 49; Dahl, 1973: 73).

Yale(5) limna «shine, gleam, glitter» (Y: 112). Yale (Kosarek) is a Pap­uan language.

Sumerian lima «hand».

Lat. lumen «light» (Emout, Meillet, 1979: 369); Engl, limb «extremity» (ME lim, AS lim, Icel. limr)(Skeat, 1958: 341); Port, chama «flame» (PRS: 425), Rus. пламя (plдmд) «id.».

Hung, lдng «flame», Spanish llama «id.» (Gдldi, 1987: 87).

Bemba(4) limu «tongue», Mbundu(4) e-limu «id.» (Guthrie 1948: 12),

Ling. (4) ІоЬОкО (та-) «hand» (RLFS: 301), lingengi (ba-) «light» (ibid.: 306).


Reconstruction for the UL: *lVma «flame», *lima «wrist, tongue», sug­gesting that an open hand with stretched fingers and a tongue both symbolized «tongues of flame», cf. Port, «linguas de fogo» (PRS: 425), Russ, «языки пламени» (jazyki plameni) [tongues of flame]; see also PHALLOS 2.

17. BAD

Engl.(l) bad, Iranian bad «id.», Russian beda «disaster»; Finn.(l) valhe «lie» («untrue») (RFS: 310); Hung.(l) baj «disaster», hula «stupid» (OMS I: 54, 286); Chechen(l) hat a «disaster», von «bad» (RChS: 35, 443).

Malay(3) bodoh «stupid», huruk «bad» (Po.: 49, 58).

Gusii(4) — be «bad» (Gu.: 34)

Swahili(4) — baya «bad» (RSS: 399); — bovu «bad, unfit» (U: 500).

Yoruba(4) biibiirii «bad» (L: 199).

Ambulas(5)pawu «misfortune, trouble, wrong» (Am.: 59).

UL bada «bad, disaster, stupid».

18. BARK (peel, bark, skin):

Nostr.(l) *k’alV (OS 156).

NC(1) *qa_W«bark, skin» (S: 45).

Malay(3) kulit «skin, shell, bark» (Po.: 225).

Later I also found An.(3) *kulit «skin» (St.-P., 32) [or An. *kuliC «skin, bark» (Si.: 178) still after I had read the paper of Starostin-Peiros].

The article of Starostin and Peiros (St.-P.) was aimed at finding evidence of lexical exchange between the OC and AT, so they also gave the OC and PT forms. But since their article was written in the 1980s (I read it only in 2008 in a new edition) the question of possible genetic connections of all these proto-languages with the Nostratic one was not discussed there and Nostratic forms (see above) were not given.

Ling.(4) mokunza {-mi, nkunza) «skin» (RLFS: 374)

UL kora «bark»


Nostr.(l) *cUhra «vessel, basket» (D2, 436).

M.(3) keranjang «basket» (Po: 776).

Mgs(3) harona «id.» (RMgS: 197).

20. BEAK:

Hung.(l) csфr (OMS I: 649), (cs=c);

Chech.(l) z"ok «id.» (RChS: 241).

An(3) *tuktuk«id.» (S: 145).

21. BEAT:

Nostr.(l) *t. Ip. I «to beat»(OSNJA 349). S. A. Starostin gave Nostratic as *t’ap ’hlal and collated it with ST *dhVp «to beat» (Starostin, 1989, 184).

Bushm.(2) !xwobbu, xwabbu, xabbu «to beat, strike» (SI: 504), tлbbe «beat off» (SI: 197), Igwoippsm «beat up» (SI: 393), kahhe: «beat up, make thin» (SI: 654).

22. BEAT 1:

Nostr.(l) *tApA «to beat»(OS 349). S. A. Starostin gave Nostratic as *t ’ap ’hlal and collated it with ST *dhVp «to beat» (S 184).

Bushm.(2) ! xwobbu, xwabbu, xabbu «to beat, strike» (SI: 504), tлbbe «beat off» (SI: 197), Igwoippsm «beat up» (SI: 393), kahhe: «beat up, make thin» (SI: 654).

23. BEAT 2

French(l) bвter «beat»

Chechen(l) etta «to beat», betta «to beat with a twig» (RChS: 43).

An.(3) *batu «stone» (P 123).

Ling. (4) — beta «to beat» (RLFS: 45).

UL *bata «to beat»


Russian(l) zhuk «beetle».

NC(1) *lsmkV«insect» (Nik.-St.: 1389).

Zulu (4) chaka «beetle»

Ambulas(5) jok «insects and crawling things» (Am: 27)

UL *zuka «beetle». Cf. BITE and PINCH.

25. BEND, TO 1:

Nostr.(l) *Luka «to bend» (D2, 1273).

M.(3) liuk «to bend», lengkung «bended», lengkukan «a bend» (Po: 251).

26. BEND, TO 2:

Nostr.(l) *buK/a «to bend, bent» (D2, 191);

Chech.(l) bukara «stooped» (ChRS: 39).

M.(3) bungkuk«hump», hiikit «hill» (Po: 668).

Ling. (4) — buka № «to bend» (RLS: 95).

Commentary: M. Rullen found this etymon to be from UL with the meaning of many reflexes «knee».

27. BIG, MANY:

Nostr.(l) *c’ok’V (~c-) «big, many», SC(1) *c’VqwV, «id.», ST(1) *cok «enough, plenty», Enis.(l) (l)*suk — «thick» (Starostin, 1989, 20).

Bushm.(2) *llkellke, s. like, llkallka, llkeillkei «big, old» (NIII: 553), tsao «many» (Cl: 212), tukw7 «many» (Sllb: 241), tamka «thick» (CII: 191).

28. BIG, MANY(2):

Swedish manga «many», Latin magna «great».

Nostr.(l) т/о/пЛ ~m/o/n/g/A «much, big»; Amerind.(6) *moni «many, large, all» (RN 42).

Fula(4) mangu «size, «boundlessness» (Z: 344).


S.-h.(l) *beg — «to swell» Nostr.(l) *bagV «many, enough» (Орел 1995a, 14).

Chechen(l) dokkha «big» (RChS: 48), dukha «much, many» (RChS: 288).

Bushm.(2) pakapaa, pakwai «big, old» (CIII: 156), llkallka «big» (NIII: 565), kaCu «high, big» (SI: 412).

Ан.(З) *baR3q «to swell» (P 127).


1) here CIII (Hadza) is closer to NASCA than other Khoisan languages, as also in BLOW, EAT, EGG, FOOT 2, ROAST

30. BITE

Nostr.(l) *kamu «seize, squeeze» (OS 157), *кЛтЛ «biting insect» (OS 180).

PCh.(l) *kamaka «beetle» (M: 251)

Ling. (4) — кати «squeeze», — kamata «to take» (RLFS: 310, 52 ). Amerind.(6) *kemu «to seal» (RN 34). M. Ruhlen here collates the Amerindian term with the Nostratic *kamu.

UL *kamu «seize, squeeze»; *kamaka «beetle, biting insect»

See also «FOREST» about suffix (-ka) in UL — u in UL served as a verb/adj.-attr. marker?


Nostr.(l) bisV«gall» (D 7).

SB(3) *bstai] «bitter» (E 114).

Malay(3)pahit «id.» (Po.: 323).

32. BITTER 2:

Finn.(l) karvas «bitter» (A.: 388)

Chechen(l) къахьа (in cyrillics) «bitter» (RChS: 124).

Bushm.(2) UkaoCwa «to be bitter» (SI: 558), I Ik "aCowa! «bitter» (SI: 603). There are also other Bushman correspondencies, but the ones given here are to suffice.

Yoruba(4) kord «bitter» (L: 73)

Ambulas(5) kawulek «(go) sour, ferment» (Am: 32), kus «sea, salt, sor­cery» (Am: 37).

UL *karu 1) «bitter, sour, untasty»; 2) «far»


Nostr.(l) *Kar/д/«black» (OSNJA 213).

NC(1_ *kдrV(Nik.-St: 1379).

PK(1) * kArl kArr! «dark, night» (Do. 206).

PPN(3) *?uli «black» (P 13).

34. BLIND:

Hung.(l) hula «stupid» (OMS 1:286); Chech.(l) h. I’rze «blind». (RChS: 618)

An(3) *buCa «id.» (S: 167).

Ling. (4) miso-pOto «id.» (RLS: 314). Miso means «eye».

Suahili(4) — pofu «id.», hu tu «blunt» (RSS: 549, 601).

UL *buta «blind».

35. BLOOD:

EC(1) *cдtwV«blood, life» (Nik.-St.: 376).

Bushm.(2) jalojalu «blood» (NIII: 72), lao, la, s. lou «id.» (NIa: 269,268).

36. TO BLOW 1:

S.-h.(l) *fa?- / //’?- «to blow», Nostr.(l) *puyV «id.», SC *pOHwV «id.» (Orel 1995a, 40).

Bushm.(2) poija «to blow» (CIII: 158).

Ling.(4) — pepa «id.» (RLFS: 120).


Nostr.(l) *de/awHi «shake, blow» (D 49); Russian(l) duh «spirit, ghost», dusha «soul»; Darg.-Lezg. isogloss *dwiHV «wind» (Nik.-St.: 407). This evident comparison is lacking in the known to me works of S. A. Starostin or V. Orel. See also EC *dilXwV«cloud» (Nik.-St.: 407).

SB(3) *ndu: «god, wizard, man» (E 18), *?uh «blow, play musical in­strument» (E 155); M.(3): liup «to blow» (Po: 523).

Ambulas(5) du «man» (Am.: 17).

The semantic binding seem to be: «breathe/blow, spirit, soul, ghost, man».


NC(1) *siHwV«breath, to breathe» (Nik.-St.: 961-962).

Hung.(l) szaj [saj] «mouth»’ (OMS II: 482), Finn, suu «id.» (Yeliseev, 1978: 230), Japanese suu «inhale» (Nelson 1991, 885). The name of Ancient Egyptian god Seth (swth) also may be of interest (Rubinshtein, 1992: 429).

Bushm.(2) su:. s. sil:Cva. susu, swa:ii, «to blow, snore, hum» (SI: 173), sula, s. so:, sod, o:, «lung, breast» (Nil: 173), wabba, s. u, obba «blow, whistle» (CII: 183), ts? u, tsu, tsu, s. tsotepi «to blow» (SI: 220).

Amerind(4): Chibchan-Paezan: Chimu sap, Paya sapa, Cuitlatec suxpi all «inhale» (Greenberg, 1987: 116).

39. BLUE 1:

Russ, sinij «id.»; Finn.(l) sininen «id.» (FRS: 243); Chech.(l) siina «id.» (RChS: 609).

Suahili(4) jam «green» (RSS: 177).

UL *sina «blue, green».

40. BLUE 2:

Engl.(l) blue.

M.(l) biru «blue», baru «new» (Po. 47, 32).

Suahili(4) — a kibuluu «blue» (RSS: 542).


Russ.(l) tupdj «id.»; Finn.(l) tylppaa «blunt» (about a form of an ob­ject) (RFS: 588); Hung.(l) tompa «blunt» (OMS II: 779).

M.(3) tumpul «id.» (Po: 1070)

Lingala(4) motunu (tunu) «id.» (RLS: 342).

42. BODY 1:

Nostr.(l) *bodV«body, belly» (D2, 173).

M.(3) badan «body» (Pop: 22).

43. BODY 2:

Nostr.(l) *ge? UpV«body» (D2, 650).

M.(3) tubuh «id.» (Po: 530).

44. BRANCH 1:

S.-h.(l) *gil — «stick, yoke», EC(1) *HalV «twig, branch», ST(1) */э/ «id.» (Orel 1995a, 55).

Bushm.(2) //kale, //kare «branch, root, fibre» (NIII: 554).

M.(3) galah «pole» (Po: 107).

45. BRANCH 2:

Nostr.(l) *Vlz/l «branch» (OS 141); S.-h.(l) **i’tc- «tree», EC(1) *?azwV «tree, a bush» (Orel 1995a: 64); Av-Tsez.(l) isogloss *halXViV «branch, bud» (Nik.-St.: 508).

Bushm.(2) kha i^hausi «branch» (NIa: 425), llkausii] «branches» (N11: 563), фка, Ф ha «hand, wing, forearm, handle, branch» (N1: 563), фка, s. фка «hand, wing, limb, handle, branch» (N1: 650), Ида, Ho: «forearm, hand, branch» (CII: 625), llkwaa «wing» (CII: 598).

Malay(3) cabang «branch» (Po.: 625).

Commentary Nostr Gati, Bushman forms and Tok Pisin: «hand belong tree» suggest that in the UL «hand» and «branch» were synonims.

UL *kata «hand, branch of a tree»


Nostr.(l) *Ho(k)sV «ash-tree», Enis. *loksi «tree» (Starostin 1989, 34). Nostr. Hos/1 «ash-tree» (OS 117); Turkic(l): Bashkir ucak «aspen» (RBS: 470); Tamil(l) asp maram «id.» (RTS: 664), Russ, осина (osina) «id.»; Norw. osp-a, — er «id.» (RNS: 426).


Nostr.(l)*/iY;/u7fl/ «birch-tree» (OS 170).

PMP(3) kaju «tree», An.(3) ka&iv (Dahl, 1973, 33).


EC(1 )*GozV«green color, dirt» (Nik.-St.: 464).

Malay(3) hijau «green» (IRUS: 150).


NC(1) *k(w)iswi(~ — э, — a) «mane, hair» (Nik.-St.: 709), EC(1) *kwincwV «bundle, plaiting, long hair» (Nik.-St.: 708), NC(1) */nrl ‘~lcj «tail» (Nik.-St.: 739), *NC qwAcA «id.» (Nik.-St.: 934), Av.-And. — Lezg. isogloss *wVsa «hair, feather» (Nik.-St.: 1058-1059). Compare: Russ, волос (volos) «hair», коса (kosa) «plait», хвост (xvost) «tail».

IE(1) *kais «hair», NC *kwVsV«hair, mane» (Starostin 1988, 2.4), NC (Lezg.-WC isogloss) *gwVcV«a kind of grass» with characteristic semantics of the reflexes: Lezg. *qas(a) «grass, feather-grass», WC *q’Iwaca «nettle» (Nik.-St.: 905-906).

Bushm.(2) ikhoisi (source — Lebzelter, 1934) «hair», possibly okhoisi «our hair»(:NII 69), !kuise s. k”wi «hair» (N1: 450), kx? wi, s. !kwi, k”wi «id.» (Nil: 469).

An. *quCus «stem, stalk» (Si.: 172).

All these reflexes should have ultimately originated from just one word in the UL.

Ling. (4) lokosa «a hair (small)» (RLFS: 74).

The UL word was most probably *kasa. Of its semantics see below.


Nakh.-Darg.(l) isogloss *HVlz’V«to rain» (Nik.-St.: 614). By the way in Russian there is no equivalent for the English verb «to rain». Rain in Rus­sian «goes» [идёт (idot), as if it were a living being.

An.(3) *quzan «rain» (P 146).

Commentary: «Threads» of rain seen from afar might have been per­ceived in UL as branches (arms) of the raincloud (God). «Rain» (a gentle kind of rain, see PHALLOS 2) in UL thus might have been a semantic deri — vate from «branch, extremity».


S.-h.(l) * ?asVw — «illness», EC(1) *?azzV «to be sick, illness» (Orel 1995a, 2). Chechen(l) ovsi «ilncss» (RChS: 47).

Proto-Tungus-Manchu(l) *enusi(-) «pain, to be ill» (AnH.: 195).

Bushm.(2) ta, ta:, и. tao ta:ti «to be sick, illness» (N1: 223), tii «to be sick» (Cl: 229), Ikeisi, Ikeisiq, llkoasii] «soul, ghost» (SI: 583, 308).


Norw. host «autumn» (RNS: 426), Hung.(l) dsz (6:s)

«id.» (OMS, I: 1080); Bashk. koz «id.» (RBS: 470); Russ, осень (osen ’) «id.».


Port, tosse «cough», n. (PRS: 800), Norw. hoste «id.» (RNS: 268), Germ. Husten «id.» (Lein, 1992:462), Hung, kohoges «id.» (OMS. I: 631), Bashk. jutsl «id.» (RBS: 285). This root can be quite non-omatopoetic: Tamil irumal «id.» (RTS: 405).


Finn.(l) isa «father» (Yeliseev, 1978: 175), esi-isa «ancestor» (A: 40). Ancient Egyptian Osiris [ws’ir] «Lord of the Underworld» (Reder 1992: 267), see also Teutonic Asr «younger god».

Bushm.(2) aso, asu «parent», asomo, asowa «father», asoko, asuko, asuti «mother» (CIII: 11).

Niger-Kordofan(6): Kwa: Isoko Ose. Irhobo Oss Itsekiri Osa (Bradbury 1957: 136, 185).


Russ.(l) oca (osa) «wasp»; Bashkir(l) haxbizak«id.» (RBS: 469).

Bushm.(2) !we:nsa «wasp» (SII: 361).

Amerind(4): Almosan-Keresiouan: Pawnee: pats < wats, Iroquoian: Catawba wuss «bee», Keresan: Santa Ana bi:sa ‘ «bee»; Penutian: Mi — wok: Sentral Sierra: sussu; Mayan: Tzeltal: sus (Greenberg, 1987: 179).


Nostr.(l) *KaSA «bone» (OS 219), EC(1) *kdca «a kind of bone» (Nik.-St.: 698); S.-h. *kas — «bone» (Mi.: 23).

SB(3) *kmtir] «bone» (E 252).

PPN(3) *hui «id.» (P 16).

Ling.(4) — kasi «hard» (RLFS: 331).

Amerind.(6) *k’atsi «bone, hard» (RN 22).

UL *kasa «bone / hand».


L)The grounds to unite semantically and etymologically all material pre­sented above are like follows:

1) Upper Paleolithic people of the Near East at 40 ka conceived foliage of aspens («talking» trees, see Toporov 1992: 266-267) as home of the an­cestors. Wasps with their buzzing were similarly seen as souls of ancestors (Toporov 1992: 264). Ancestors who died «bad deaths», or in case of lack of reverence could send ilness to the living. Autumn can be semantically tied with «ilness» as a time when nature begins to fade and respiratory illnesses become more frequent.

2) In UL existed a word designating «branch, extremity», including «foot» (like in Bushman N1: 563 and 650, see above), and «long hair», see also RAIN. In Nostratic the semantic shift «foot» > «bone» happened whereas in Amerindian an ancient root continued to mean «foot».

3) It is clear that the Nostratic semantic reconstruction may be extended to include «aspen» as well. UL tentative «reconstructions» will be *kasa «tree» due to higher probability of tree > branch semantic develop­ment,*^^« «branch, extremity», *osa’ «ancestor» (in two-syllable UL words the stress fell on the first syllable).


Port.(l) baixo «low» (PRS: 122); Finn.(l) pohja «bottom» (RFS: 400); Chech.(l) huh «lower part» (RChS: 348).

M.(3) bawah «lower part, low» (Po: 34)

47. BURN:

Russian(l) zee’ «to bum».

Bashkir(l) ягыу (in syrillics) «id.» (RBS: 193).

Ling.(4) — zikisa «id.» (RLFS: 126).

48. BUZZ, HUM:

Russian(l) жужжать zuzzat’] «to buzz».

Port.(l) zumbir «id.» (PRS: 855).

Hung.(l) zummog «id.» (OMS I: 436).

Chechen zuz dan «id.» (RChS: 170).

Ling. (4) — lunza, — luza «id.» (RLFS: 127).

UL *zuza «to buzz», zuka «beetle» (see # 19).

49. CHASE, TO:

Nostr.(l)*#aya «pursue» D2,821).

M.(3) men-gejar «id.» (Po: 949).

50. CHEEK:

W.-Chad(l) * (ha)-gun — «cheek», EC(1) *qwanlu «face, cheek», Enis.(l) *KVn «face, mouth» (Orel 1995a, 52).

Bushm.(2) !ga:m, /gam, s. Igan «cheek, jaw» (NIa: 275).

51. CHEW:

Nostr.(l) *KaywA «to chew» (Д 166).

Bushm.(2) llkaae «chew up» (Cl: 547) llkhwaiC, «to chew» (SI: 578).

SB(3) *kl:l «id.» (E 128).

Amerind.(6) *k’aiwa «to bite» (RN 49).

52. CHILD:

IE(1) *kol(i) (Starostin 1988 1.4), Tsez.-Nakh.(l) isogloss *qVle «child» (Nik.-St.: 929); PK(1) *kwAl(l)A(c) (Do.: 6), Hung.(l) kdlyok «young of animal, little boy» (OMS I 354), Mong.(l) голог gmog «cub» (RMS: 144). In the context of our study it is of no relevance whether the Hungarian or Mongolian terms are «Chuvasisms», i. e. borrowed from Early Turkic (see: Benko, 1970, Vol. I: 608) or not.

Bushm.(2) ola, Ola, s. ora «child» (CIII: 154), llko:la «boy» (SIII: 586), koij «child» (SHb: 442), korj s. koirj «grandfather» (SI: 442), koni «child» (SHb: 100), Ikava (/kaba) «id.» (SHb: 304), lko:ba, Ikoba «child, boy» (Slla: 318), l? uba, lu? va «child» (Slla: 358), Iwa s. gwa «id.» (SII: 361), koa koa «id.» (SI: 437), k0e «grandchild, small child» (N11: 439), ku, s. khu, khwa «child» (SI: 447), ko, s. koma «small» (N11: 436), Ikwa «child, girl, boy, Igwa «young» (SIV), llha, llha «child, son» (SIV: 539).

SB(3) *k0:n (E 470).

53. CHILD2:

Nostr.(l) ЬЛгЛ «child» (OS 32).

Chechen(l) ber «child» (ChRS: 35), Tabasaran(l) биц1ир (in cyrilics) «children» (RTabS: 33). Tabasaranis an Eastern North-Caucasian language.

Malay(3) baru «new, fresh» (Po.: 32).

Ambulas(5) baadi «children, offspring» (Am.: 11)

54. CHILD 3:

Malay anak «child» (Po.: 10).

Gusii(4) ana (ото-) «child» (Gu: 29).

Ling.(4) bana «children» (RLFS: 109), mwana «a child» (RLFS: 296).

UL *kola, ana «child, cub»; *baru «new». Possibly *kola ment «young of animals and *ana — human child.

55. CHINK:

Chech.(l) xero «id.» (RChS: 770); Finn.(l) sola “gorge, ravine” RFS: 247); Russ.(l) shekel’ «id.».

M.(3) cel ah «id.» (Po: 66); Mgs.(3) tsefaka «id.» (RMgS: 426).

UL *sela «id.»

1. Distribution of the reflexes show that the «s» in the UL sounded like the corresponding sound in Japanese (between 5 and 5).

2. In Russian the words щель «chink», цель «aim» (целиться «to aim») and целый [1) «whole» 2) «intact, unharmed»] sound similar. The English correspondence hole, goal, and whole — all show that in both cases it is not a coincidence, but a case of semantic ties. Let me try to crack at these semantics.

First I must add other examples:

Hung.(l) cel, celoz «target, aim at»; egesz, teljes «all, whole» (OMSII: 912); szuz talaj «virgin land» (OMS I: 969); hezag «chink», hasadek «gorge, ravine» (OMS II: 976, 856).

Chech.(l) 1алашо «target», хьежо «to aim at» (RChS: 746); хьадаза «intact, unharmed» (RChS: 344).

M.(3) seluruh «whole» (Po: 437). There is no «luruh» or similar words in Malay, so selu — here is the base of the word seluruh.

The explanation of all these semantic «coincidences» may lay in sexual notions of the man of the Paleolithic. Seta in UL must have ment not only «chink» but also «opening of a vagina». The aiming at game animals with the spear and throwing those spears were equalled (in symbol and magic) with aiming at vulva and penetrating it with penis. This hypothesis is also corroborated by some examples of the Paleolithic mural art which describe the hunters with erected falloses.

56. CHIN, JAW:

IE(1) *g(h)enu «cheek, chin», EC(1) *qwanlu «face, cheek, flat surface», ST(1) *kwaij «cheek», Yenis.(l) kVn «face, mouth» (Starostin 1988,2.8).

FU(1) *Qtje«jaw, cheek» (Teplyashina, 1978: 772).

Bushm.(2) xanee «chin, jaw» (Cl: 256), dza:ni, s. za:ni, za:ra «chin» (SV: 32, 265),_gaij, s. _lgaC„ gania «id.» (NIII: 376), etc.

SB(3) *ka:rj «jaw, chin» (E 649).

An.(3)*timig «chin, jaw» (Si.: 143).


Finn.(l) suku «clan, relatives» (RFS: 251); Est.(l) sugu «gender» (ERS: 564).

Khm.(3) seka: «woman» KRS: 706); M.(3) suku (1) part, (2) tribe, peo­ple» (Po: 470); Minangkabau(3) suku «matrilineal clan» (Maretin2002: 96- 97); M. suka «to love, like» (Po: 469). Japanese suki «to like» (

Commentary: In Russian this word degraded to suka «bitch». Since in other Nostratic branches this degradation did not happened, we may tenta­tively attribute it to the indoeropean «ideological revolution».

58. CLEAN:

Nostr.(l) *citV «to clean» (D2, 411).

M.(l) ber-sih «clean» (Po: 42). Ber — — prefix.

59. CLEAR:

Nostr(l) hera

S.-h.(l) *hera[w/y] «day», EC(1) *hw[bi]re «day, midday» (Orel 1995a, 65).

Hausa(l) garai «clear» (L: 331).

M.(3) cerah «clear (about weather)» (Po: 1129)

Yoruba(4) kedere «id.» (L: 331).

60. CLOSE, TO:

Nostr.(l) *cEPtV«to close, shut, hide» (D2, 492).

M.(3) tutup «to close» (Po: 541)

61. COLD 1 (see also WIND):

Nostr.(l) * kill a «to freeze, cold», *KirA «hoarfrost» (OS 176, 230).

Bushm.(2) haii «cold» (Cl: 56), k”aCp «to cool, to be cold» (SI: 119), kaLi? i «cold» (Slla: 81), /guru Iguruwa «cold, to be cold» (Cl: 284), Ikaroba «to be cold» (SV: 302), tkau «be cold, naked» (N1: 303), fkaao «be cold» (Nil: 654), IIOLa «be cold, cold» (SIV: 626), xoa «be cold» (SIII: 500), llk? au «same» (SVI: 561), Ixorre, Ixorritsn «cold» (SI: 365), Ixworre, Ixwarre «same» (SI: 367).

Bushm. JlkOli, llkuli «wind» (NIII: 586, 592), llk”ari «id.» (SIV: 603), khou «southern wind» (Slla: 661), kinve, kowe «wind» (Slla: 662, 664), i^kwe, s. i^khwe «id.» (SIV: 666), ^xe, i^xe~, s. i^xi «to be cold» (N1: 679).


UL *kula «cold».

62. COLD 2:

Nostr.(l) *camgV«cold» (D2, 343).

M.(3) origin «wind» (Po: 12).


Nostr.(l) *Kapa «to cover» (Orel 1995a, 68).

SB(2) *kh ’ro:p «cover, lid» (E 414).


Russ.(l) krivoj «id.»

M.(3) serong «id.» (Po: 450),45. CRANE:

Swahili(4) korongo (ma-) «crane» (K.: 73).

65. CRY, TO:

Nostr.(l) *gorlil «to cry» (D, 140).

M.(3) jerit «to cry, a cry» (Po: 173); Mgs.(3) akora «a cry» (RMgS: 202).

66. TO CUT:

Nostr.(l) *kaca «to cut, break»; Amerind.(6) *k’at’i «to cut, break» (RN 50).

Ling. (4) — kata «to cut» (RLFS: 297).

UL *kata «to cut»

67. DAY:

Nostr.(l) *narA «fire, bum» (OS 320).

Bushm.(2) nari, naro, s. neriba «sky, cloud» (SVI: 474), nau, naui] «red sky at dawn or sunset» (SI: 475), ylkworribe, kworribe «makerel sky» (N11: 150, 469), /na:, Inaa, Inea, h. tnai «sky, air» (N1: 342), na: «dawn, morning» (N1: 471), nau «thunder» (Nllb: 475), llnarri, Unari «to bore, stir, twirl or roll stick for making fire, firestick» (N1: 615), llnoru, IlnOru «blood» (N11: 621); nau, nau «hare» [(from the myth about the Moon and Hare, see part II of the present paper, (SI: 475)], nau s. na, nai, nci:ij «to be old» (N1: 475), xanni-Hnau «rainbow», red rainbow is a female in Bushman ide­ology (N11: 497).

Scrt. *nahhas «clouds» (Kochergina, 1996: 314).

SB(3) *nar «day» (E 133); Khm.(3) tjdw «bright» (about red color) (KRS: 170).

Swahili(4) — ng ’aa / — ng ’ara «shine» (U 429).

Suahili(4) su-nguru «hare» (RSS: 176), su — — prefix.

Lingala(4) li-ngengi «light» (n.) (RLS: 306), li — — prefix.

Ambulas(5) nyaa «sun, day» (Am.: 56).

UL *nara «hot light, red sun».

Commentary: Taking into account the Bushman semantics: «red sky (sun) at dawn» > «arising day» > «blood» we may suggest the same scheme of origin for Nostr. «fire, bum» and SB «day» < «red sky, principal deity, providing the birth of the new day after cold night, giving people blood, life and breath».

Nabu — Babylonian god of knowledge (see Afanasjeva, 1992: 194).

Nergal — Sumerian God, husband of Ereshkigal, lordess of Underworld. Initially Nergal was a heaven deity (Afanasjeva, 1992: 212).

NiQrdr — Scandinavian god of wind and fertility; part of the time dwells in heaven (Meletinskij, 1992: 231). All three can be final transformations of the image of the Hare — Red Sun-Disc deity.

68. DEAF:

Nostr.(l) *dURV«id.» (D2, 558).

M.(3) lull «id.» (Po: 533).

69. DIRT:

W.-Chad.(l) *(HV-)ba(w/y)ak — ~ ba(w/y)ak — «dirt», SC *pwdlqIV«dirt, pus», ST *phak «dirt, excrements» (Orel, 1995a, 13).

SB(3)*Ј0? «dirt» (E 123).

70. DIRT 3

Nostr.(l) *cotV«mud» (D2, 495).

M.(3) kotor «dirty» Po: 220).

71. DOG 1:

NC *gwaze «bitch, dog» (Nik.-St.: 445).

Ao-Naga(l) azu «dog» (Zahaijin2008: 71).

An(3) *cisu «dog» (P: 114).

Gusii(4) — seese (e-) «id.» (Gu.: 29).

Fula(4) rwaandu «dog» (Z: 586). Ndu is a suffix for animated objects separately meaning «spirit». See # 29.

Yoruba(4) aja «dog» (L: 261).

72. DOG 2:

S.-h.(l) *kun — «dog» (Orel 1995a, 78). V. M. Illich-Svitych, as is known, included S.-h. into the Nostratic family.

Amerind.(6) *k’uan «dog» (RN 35).

73. DOUBT, TO:

Bashk.(l) sikldnei «to doubt» (RBS: 750); Chech.(l) seko «doubt» (RChS: 634).

Suahili(4) saka «id.» (RSS: 561).

74. DOWN:

Nostr.(l) рис/1 «body hair, down, feathers»; Amerind.(6)*/; ‘ut’i «hair, feather, bird down» (RN 17). In the [OS] the Nosratic form is given as *lpluncE (OS 365).

Chechen(l) gazananpuhl«goat down» (gaza «goat») (RChS: 543,243).

Ling.(4) mposo «skin» (RLFS: 374).

75. DROWN, TO:

Russ.(l) tonut’ «id.».

M.(3) tenggelam «id.» (Po: 508).

76. DRY:

Hung.(l) szaraz [saraz] «dry»

Turkish(1) kuru «id.» (RtuS: 396)

Malay(3) kering «id.» (Po: 1054).

Swahili(4) — kavu «id.» (K: 493), or 403 Check it

Ling.(4) ekauki «id.» (RLFS: 329).

Yoruba(4) kasi «id.» (L: 281).

UL *garu «bitter» *karu «dry, far».

77. EAGLE, OWL:»

EC(1) *gHV»rV ql " «kind of bird (magpie, eagle-owl» (Nik.-St.: 921); Chech.(l) /I rzu «eagle» (RChS: 387).

Bushm.(2) Ugaree «eagle» — exists only in semantic index, p. 713; llkao, «eagle» (N11: 558), llk”?o «fish eagle» Haliens vocifer (SI: 606), llhau «to fly» (SI: 632), llhau «eagle» (N11: 633)

Suahili (4) kwazi «eagle» (RSS: 346).

78. EAR:

Nostr.(l) *?uzV «ear» (Д 84), but Finn, korva «id.» (A: 594); Nakh — Xurrit(l) isogloss */( cl ’ (~x-) «to hear» (Nik.-St.: 1078). Let us turn to pos­sible semantic connotations between: Russ, дверь (dver ’) «door», дыра (dyra) «hole», дура {dura) «female fool», adding to them Engl, door, Ger­man Tiir and

PK(2) *(Ag(g) «ear, hear» (Do. 108).

Bushm.: du, s. tu: «mouth, door» (SVIa: 28), turn: s. tu. tu:i «to hear, listen» (SI: 241), dui, tu, tui «to hear» (SIVa: 29), _daQna, dham «doorway» (NIII: 21), de «ears» (SIIc: 23), dum «hole» (SVI: 29), dzu «id.» (SV: 34). To this may be added:

SB(3) *to:r «ear» (E 616).

An.(3) *talirja «ear» (P 34); — i/a might be a postfix, see CLOUD, SPIRIT

Nostr.(l) *dUr/1 «deaf» (OSNJA 74), Malay(3) nil і «deaf» (IRUS: 468), Tahitian(3) turi «deaf» (Arakin, :49).

Ling.(4) toi (li-) «ear» (RLFS: 352); Soninke(4) toro «id.» (Gr., 17).

Amerindian tolka «ear» — three-way agreement in Swadesh (Yawel — mani, Mariposa, Zoque).


UL *tora «ear» *dura «deaf, stupid».


S.-h.(l) * carnal «eat, feed», Nostr.(l) *сЛЛтЛ «eat» (only Kartvelian, see OS 57), SC *cwVmV«chew, hold in mouth» (Orel 1995a, 30).

EC(1) *z’wemV«mouth, chin» (Nik.-St.: 1103-1104).

IE(1) *stom-en «mouth», EC *z’wemV (~ — з-, — o-) «mouth, chin» (Sta — rostin 1988, 2.14).

EC(1) *simV(~ — и-,-й-) «lip, gum» (Nik.-St.: 962).

Bushm.(2) seme, seme, s. sameta «eat, food» (CIII: 166).

SB(3) *sism «to feed» (E 247).

Swahili(4) — sema «to speak» (U: 28).

Amerind(6) sami «mouth» is a three-way agreement in (Swadesh 1956): Nez Perce, Yawelmani, and Quechua. (Quechua Cochabamba:

Simi Simeon Quiste Bravo, personal communication), Proto-Maidun *sim.

UL *sema «mouth»

80. EEL:

An(3) *tuNa «freshwater eel» (S: 142).

Suahili(4) mkunga «eel» (RSS: 608).

81. EGG:

EC(1) *gwVtVqV(~*qwVqVlV) «egg, grain» (Nik.-St.: 906).

Bushm.(2) uxle. uxilaku «egg» (CIII: 249).

An(3) *qaC8luR «id.» (Si: 165).

Ling.(4) li-kei «id.» (RLS: 381); Suahili(4)yai «id.» (RSS: 657).

82. ELBOW:

Nostr.(l) *caqlallV (or *caqV) «elbow»(D2, 356). Russ.(l) sgibat’ «to fold»; Hung.(l) szog «angle» (OMS II: 797). Cf. Engl, angle and ankle.

M.(3) siku, sikut «elbow» (Po: 794); An(3) *siku(H) «elbow» (Sagart 2002: 5).


Nostr.(l) *Ka/ehU «empty» (D 61). NC (Nakh-Av-And isogloss) *gwV:ntV«pit, hollow» (Nik.-St.: 451, see also: 436).

Bushm.(2) lla: ni «be empty» (SV: 517), i^kae «to go empty» (Cl: 654), ha:mja, ha:inti «to be hollow, curved» (SI: 56). canoe i. e. «hollow log».

M.(3) hampa «empty» (Po: 132); kandung «bag, pocket» (IRUS: 171); Mlg(3) foana «empty» (RMgS: 404).

84. EYE:

EC(1) *ni3te (~ — i) «face» (Nik.-St.: 807), Lolo-Burm.(l) *mwat (Sta — rostin 1984, 1.2), PK(1) *mat(t)Ah «head» > «forehead, chief» (Do.: 182).

Bushm.(2) mu-i, s. mu «eye» (Nllb: 139), mu, s. mo, moo, moe «see, look» (CII: 139).

SB(3) *mat «eye» (E 105).

An.(3) *mata «id.» (P 115), Thai(3) *ta «id.» (Gohman 1992: 16).

Ling.(4) moto, mutu (mi-) «head» (RLFS: 96).


1) In Nostratic «eye» became *HuKa (OS 118), while semantics of *mata changed to *metA «to feel, know», *mUdv «to think, wise» (OS 297 and 311, respectively).

2) Association in UL. *muda «balls (testicles)» (see # 8); *mata «eyes»

85. TO FALL:

Nostr.(l) *KetA «to fall» (OS 225).

Chechen(l) xepifa (in cyrillics) [herca] «id»” (RChS: 416).

Bushm.(2) Ikutsn «id.», xuttsn «id.» (SI: 326, 262).

Au.(3): Ruk kwtOh (even tone, w-vowel, resembling Russian hi) «id.» (R: 205).

An.(3) Malay jatuh «id.» (Po: 168).

Ling.(4) — kita «id.» (RLFS: 237)

UL *keta «to fall»


Port.(l) parente «relative» (PRS: 600); Finn.(l) perhe «family» (RFS: 193).

87. FAT 1:

Nostr.(l) *cimyE «fat, grease» (D 8); Finn.(l) liha «meat», lihava «fatty» (RFS: 136).

Bushm.(2) «fat»: dzan (Nil: 31), soa, s. soe, soen (SII: 172), tsa «gravy, fat, soup» (Cl: 210), etc.

M.(3) lemak «fat, fatty» (Po: 248).

88. FAT2:

S.-h.(l) mariH «fat» (Orel 1995a, 112); Nostr.(l) *mer’/1 «fat, grease» (ibidem). Nilo-Saharan(l) (Koalib) *rjila (Blench: 19). Russianmarat’ «to soil».

M.(3) minyak«oil» (Po: 290).

89. FEAR 1:

Nostr.(l) *pela «to fear»

Kobon(5)рыгык plrlk] «id.» (Ко.: 242).

90. FEAR 2:

Nostr.(l) *tikll «fear», n. (D 36; MC 370).

An.(3) *takut«to fear» (P 43).

91. FENCE:

Nostr.(l) * Kota «fence, wall» > «hut, house, settlement» (D2, 1225).

M.(3) kota «town, city» (Po: 220).

92. FIELD:

Port.(l) campo «id.» (PRS: 172).

M.(l) kampung «village» (Po: 183)


Nostr.(l) *calwelRV«finger, (?) hand» (D2, 314).

M.(3) jari «finger» (Po: 167); Mgs.(3) sandri «hand» (RMaS 433).

94. FINGERNAIL 1 (possibly connected with ARROW, or even BRANCH 1):

S.-h(l) *cVlV«to cleave, split», Nostr(l). *calu «to split, cut», SC(1) *cViHV«to split» (Orel 1995a, 25).

NC(1) *cbi(i)ihV «tooth» (Nik.-St. 326). Compare Russ, клык (klyk) «fang»; Engl, claw, and EC *cwbilhV» (~ — a-) «stick, branch» (Nik.-St. 374). See also Proto-Tungus-Mancu(l) *surka «fang» (AnH.: 140).

Bushm.(2) kole «nail (fingernail)» (Cl: 98), kulitu «nails» (SI: 451), IlkOla «nail» (CIII: 586), IlkOnu, s. Ilkora I/кого Ukulu «id.» (NIII: 586, 592), Ukuru, s. Ilkurisi, Ukulu, llkoro «nail, claw» (SI: 593), llkuru, llkurru «stone knife, flake, quarts» (SI: 593).

SB(3) *cOh, *sre:h «to cut» (E 481, 482), *кэ1 «to cut a tree» (E 484).

To this (UL*cala «claw») may have been tied as phono-semantic dis­tinction — opposition another UL etymon with the meaning «to dig etc.», see:

Nostr.(l) *Kajw/1 «to dig» (OS 209).

Bushm.(2) «id.»: kaba (Slid: 76), tka:laa (SV: 299), llkain, llkein, s. Hke:n «to stab, pierce, dig, sew» (SI: 552), llkale «to dig», s. Ilkala «digging stick» (SV: 554), llke:tj, Hke:n, s. llkein «to stab, stick in, prick, pierce, sting, dig» (SI: 569).

Malay(3) gali «spade up» (IRUS: 123).


Nostr.(l) *kun-ce «nail, peg», SC(1) *xq’winV «id.», Enis.(l) (x)ine «nail, claw» (Starostin 1989, 63).

PK(1) *qAnC «claw» (Do.: 88), FU(1) *kunce «nail, claw» (Teplya — shina 1978: 302). Compare Russ, конец (konets) «end».

Bushm.(2) Ikentu «finger» (SI: 309), IkhOnu «finger, toe» (CII: 313, Ikonesi «fingers» (N1: 319) IkOnu s. Ikonesi «finger» (SVI: 319)6 llkanate «fingers» (SV: 557) llkove «id.» (NIII: 589).

SB(3)*//i"j/ ‘nhes «nail, hoof» (E 341).

Swahili(4) ukucha / kucha «nail» (K: 321).


Nostr.(l) *tEpV«to warm» (D 75).

PMP(3) *Capuy «fire» (Da: 32). In the Kadazan-Dusun dialects (in Sa­bah) this word sounds as tapui (J. F. Ongkili, personal communication).

97. FIRE 2:

S.-h(l) *cah — «be white»; SC(1) *cAjV (Nik.-St.: 1358); Nostr.(l)* cajha «shimmer» (Orel 1995a, 26).

M.(3) cahaya «light» (Po: 1013).

Ling.(4) seta «light (in colour)» (RLFS: 306); Suahili(4) taa «light» (RSS: 335).

Am(5) *feq’a ~ *foq’a «to bum» (Gr, 101).

UL *saha «light»

98. FISH:

Nostr.(l) *diga «fish» (OSNJA, 67).

An.(4) *iSdkan «id.» (P, 48).

99. FISH 2:

IE(1) *piskIpeisk — «fish», NC(1) *pVswV«id.» (Starostin 1988, 1.10).

Ling, mbisi «fish» (RLFS: 302).

100. FIST, HOLD:

Nostr.(l) *kamu «to hold, squeeze» (OS 157), IE(1) *penkue — «five»;

S.-h.(l) *kam — «hand», EC(1) *kVmV «armful», ST(1) *kon / *gdrt «id.» (Orel 1995a, 84).

EC(1) *x~wink’wV«fist» (Starostin 1988, 2.11).

Bushm.(2) Ikomaku «handfist» (SIV: 319), tau «hand, finger» (CII: 227), gait. usually J/gau «hand» (NIII: 44), lk”a «hand, finger» (SI: 336), k”ai]k”u «id.» (SIVb: 119), !koamba «id.» (Nllb: 438), IkAm «take, fetch, carry» (SI: 326-327), /кЛтта «take from, carry» (SI: 327) фката, фкатта «carry» (SI: 656).

Wolof(6) кётёх «fist» (English-Wolof Dictionary: 58).

Commentary: About postfix *-kV see also PHALLOS 2,

MUSHROOM, (in «indecent lexics» part); NIGHT; ANTELOPE, DEER 2.

101. FLAT:

Nostr.(l) *iapca (lapca) «flat» (OSNJA 256).

EC(1) *HapV~«paw, extremity» [Nik.-St. 545 (Tsez.-WC isogloss)].

Enis.(l) *j3:pe «leaf» (StE: 195).

SB(3) Чэра:ц «palm, sole of foot» (E276).

An.(3) *Da(m)pad «flat, level», incl. Cebu (Cebuano) lapad «flat, level surface» (Blust 1980, 113); Malay telapak «foot», sole, palm» (Po: 502).

Ling.(4) lambasanu «flat» (RLFS: 249).

Ambulas(5) laabi «peel off», laapiyak «undo leaf wrappings» (Am.: 44).

UL *lapa «foot, flat».


Ling.(4) tsili (ba-) «louse» (RLFS: 77).

103. FOAM:

An.(3)puCaq «foam» (Si.: 172).

Ling.(4) fuku-fuku (RLFS: 241).

104. FOOT:

Nostr.(l) pal’qA «foot (flat part of it)» (OS 361).

Ling.(4)papala «flat» (RLFS: 249).

105. TO FLOW:

S.-h.(l) *gVwVr «submerge, immerse», Nostr.(l) *guru «flow, pour», NC(1) *HwVrV«flow, pond», ST(1) Hor «to flow» (Orel 1995a, 57).

Bushm.(2) ara s,a, ta, tiara «to pour out» (N11: 178), a ’a, s. a «to pour out, dribble» (N11: 177), i:, s. la, a’a «to pour» (SIII: 179), Igoru «to pour out» (Cl: 282), Ikerri «to pour in more (liquid)» (N11: 309), deri, s. dhiri, dirri «to run down, pour down» (SI: 24), toro, torro «to pour, stream, become wet, be drenched» (SI: 208), a «water» (CIII: 177), Komi (belongs to FU(1) sor «river» (I once paddled rivers in the Northern Urals, the names of all of them ended with sor.

Nostr.(l) guru «to flow, to stream» (OS 98).

SB(3) *h0:r «to flow» (E 577).

Malay(3) air «water», mengalir «to flow» (Po.: 634, 1062).

Ling.(4) — kele «to flow» (RLFS: 334).

Ambulas(5) gu «water, liquid» (Am.: 22)

UL *guru «to flow».

106. TO FLY:

S.-h. *far — «rise, fly», SC *pUrV«to fly» Nostr. *parV«id.» (Orel 1995 I, 42).

Ling, — pumbwa «to fly» (RLFS: 179).

UL *para «id.».

107. FOOT 1:

S.-h.(l) *lVk — / IVk — «foot», Nostr. *i[a]ka «foot», SC *l~EkV «foot, bone», NC *iaka «foot», ST *lVrj «id.» (Orel 1995a, 103).

Nostr.(l) *LAga «to lie» [as in bed] (OS 271).

SB(3) *jdri «foot» (E 340).

Ah.(3) *waqay «foot» (P 55).

Kobon(5) le «bone» (Ko.: 240). Kobon is a Papuan language.

See also SNAKE 1.

108. FOOT 2:

IE(1) *nog-o «nail, foot» (Szemerenyi 1980: 72).

Bushm.(2) naxu, sAno, nunu «foot» (SI: 476), llna:xu s. Ilna «id.» (SII: 617).

109. FOOT 3:

S.-h.(l) *paHud «foot», , ST *piit / p^t «knee», Enis. *bat «id.», «same» (Orel, 1995a, 103). Tie with Nostr. *podqa «thigh seems to V. Orel «problematic». The following forms may be added to the list, however:

Bushm.(2) fukwa «foot» (CIII: 40), upukwa «leg, hindleg» (CIII: 249).

An.(3) *paqa «leg, thigh» (Dahl 1973: 27),

Dogon(4) paga «leg» (Blench 20).

Amerind.(6) paqa «bone», a 3-way agreement in «Масго-Penuti» (Swadesh 1956).


S.-h.(l) *hont — «face, forehead»; Nostr.(l) *qantV «in front of»; SC(1) *HendwV«forehead» (Orel 1995a, 66).

Bushm.(2) Ixongusii] «brains» (Nil: 365), karj, и. kun кщ «brain» (Sllb: 407), фхипфхипи «brains» (Nil: 681).

Ling, mbonzo, bonzo «forehead» (RLFS: 182).

111. FOREST:

FU(1) *wore (Teplyashina 1978: 267).

Germanic *baru «forest» (Dobrodomov: 30), Russ, бор (bor) «pine forest».

Tamil(l) virodi «enemy» (RTS: 147), cf. Russ, враг (vrag) «id.»; Engl. wrong, Old Norse wrangr «wrong, unjust» (Skeat, 1958: 726), Finn, vaara «wrong», varas «thief» (Yeliseev, 1978: 154, 46); Finn, vaara «danger» (RFS: 306).

SB(3) *bri: «forest, wild» (E 282).

If we collate these etymons with An.(3) *piraqu «boat, vessel» (Kul — landa, 1992: 36), Port.(l) barco «boat» (PRS: 129), Carib(4) piragua «boat» (Ditrih, 1999: 104), we may suggest for UL: *wara-ka «a raft, a boat made of a single log». *Ka — then will be a suffix. See also MUSHROOM, FIST

Commentary: enemy comes from the forest: this must have been the ancient logic principle.

112. FULL:

Nostr.(l) *bonga «thick, swell» (D 136).

SB(3) *be:rj «full» (E 418).

M.(3) bulan «moon», bulatan «circle» (Po: 55)

An.(3) *bulaN «moon» (Si: 191), *psnuh «full» (P, 62).

Commentary: the name for the moon in An (and in Malay) was / is metaphorical: «full», as in Finnish: kuu


Engl, gangway, Chech.(l) t’eg’a «step of a ladder» (Chech. RChS: 659).

M.(3) tangga «ladder, gangway» (Po: 490).

114. GNAW, TO:

Nostr.(l) *yVrqV«id.» (D2, 745).

M.(3) mengerat«id.» (Po: 122).

115. TO GO, ROAD:

S.-h. *yan — «to go, to come», EC *?V? wV-n «to go» etc (Orel 1995 I, 4). Alt(l) *jalan «road».

An(3) *Zalan «id.» (P 151).

Ling.(4) nzela (-ba) «id.» (RLFS: 116).

UL *zala «to go».

116. GRASS:

Russ.(l) seno «hay»; Engl.(l) «hay»; Finn.(l) Ьеіпй «hay» Budukh(l) Хьіп [хььт in cyrillics] «grass, hay» (Budukh Language: 32).

Vietnamese(3) co «grass»; Ruk(3) koh «id.» (R: 178).

Suahili(4) majani «grass»; yaw/’, kijani «stalk of grass» (RSL: 596).

UL *sena «grass».

117. GROW, TO:

Nostr.(l) *cumV«to lift, raise» (D2, 453a).

M.(3) tumbuh «to grow, to appear» (Po: 533-534).

118. HAIR 2 (HAIR 1 See BRANCH 2):

S.-h.(l) *sima?«\2№>, ST *cham «id.», Enis. *ssi]e «id.» (Orel 1995a, 135). SB(3)*53wO? «body hair, wool, feather» (E 62).

119. HAND 1:

S.-h.(l) *gen — «hand», NC(1) *ggIwunV «hand, shoulder», Ancient Chinese(l) *ken «shoulder», Enis.(l) *ken — «id.» (Orel 1995a, 48).

Bushm.(2) x? um, gom «arm» (NIa: 261, 385), //gum «upper arm, hu­merus» (N1: 535), l/kii «arm, wing, humerus» (SI: 590), Hgu, s. l/kii «arm» (SVIa: 534), Uoa «foreleg, arm» CII: 625, llxoi «upper arm» (SV: 636).

120. HAND 2

EC(1) *bHakV«palm of hand, hand» (Nik.-St.: 298).

Ling.(4) ІоЬОкО (-та) «hand» (RLFS: 301).

121. HAND3:

Nostr(l) *gati (OS I: 227; D 51).

Chechen(l) куьг [kug] «hand» (RChS: 584).

Compare the Chechen form with its IE *ghes-, Finnish kasi. Hung. kez. and Russ, kist’ «wrist» cognates. Useful also may turn to be

Ling.(4) likaka (та-), likanza (та-) with the exact semantic correspond­ing to the Russian «wrist» (RLFS: 301).

UL *kesa «bone, wrist»

122. HARD:

Nostr.(l)*/Vf7^l’ «horn» (D2, 1030); Chech.(l) hala «hard, difficult» (RChS: 690).

M.(3) sukar «hard, difficult» (Po: 469); Mlg(3) sarotra (RMgS: 491).

123. HARSH:

Chech.(l) k"orame «id.» (RChS: 128).

M.(l) kasar «id.» (Po: 187).

124. HEAD (top of):

Russian(l) temen ’ «top of the head»; Nostr.(l) *tVmV «hair» (D2, 2278).

Ambulas(5) taama «nose, snout, beak» (Am.: 74).


Nostr.(l) *cVxU «be alive, healthy» (D2, 373).

M.(3) segar «fresh, brisk» [about a man] (Po: 431); Mgs.(3) hery her і «courage, cheerfulness» (RMgS: 39).

126. HEART:

Nostr.(l) *SAVmV«id.», *SC(1) *SiMV«id.» (Starostin 1989, 173).

M.(3) senang «to rejoice» (Po: 442).

127. HEAVY:

Hung.(l) suly «weight», siilyos «heavy» (OMS II: 785-786).

M.(3) sulit «difficult» (Po: 470).

128. HIGH:

Nostr.(l) *h/ogE «top, above» (D2, 759).

M.(3) tinggi «high» (Po: 656).

129. HONEY, BEE:

EC(1) *pa~’nqwV «bee» (Nik.-St.: 868), EC(1) *pdrV (~ -/-) «bee, but­terfly» (Nik.-St.: 868). Nostr.(l) *purg/1 «flee» (MS: 358).

Bushm.(2) deni «Ьее» (CII: 24), Igenee «a fly, bee» (Cl: 278), J/gwasi — a «big black or white bee» (CII: 537), _dania «honey» (CII: 21), denee «bee, honey» (Cl: 24), kdinje kowin «honey» (SI: 440). Compare with Engl, honey, and these Bushmen terms are not recent loanwords unlike hsniij (SII: 60) < (Afrikaans) heuning.

Ling.(4) monzoi, nzoi «bee» (RLFS: 285).

130. HOT:

Nostr.(l) *Kajla «hot, bum» (OSNJA 208).

Bushm.(2) haa? i, hai: i «hot» (SII: 56); llk? u «to be hot, warm» (SVI: 590), ±kee «hot» (Cl: 659), khwa, khwi, kwi, _ka(^o «to be hot, bum» (NIII: 90), llkai «to roast» (SVI: 550), llkola «to bum» (SV: 586), _aQo «to scom, bum a mark» (NIII: 9), _gulu «to bum, catch fire» (NIII: 50),.

Nomern Sierra Miwok kit I a «coals», kululi «black» (Callagan 1987: 317, 310).


Nostr.(l) o/ukU «head», **lolku «self» (D2, 802).

An(3) *aku «1» (Si: 291).

132. ICE:

NC(1) *ma(r)hvbi «ice» with reflexes: Lak mik Darg mix, Lezg. merAw, Khin. *mik; WC *m3L3 (Nik.-St.: 799).

Bushm.(2) mikela, «severe cold influenza» (Cl: 137). mokhuele «cold, winter» [(Slid: 138) source: (Arbousset, 1842), borrowing from a Bantu lan­guage cannot be excluded].

Ling.(4) malii «cold» (RLFS: 360).


S.-h.(l) *ler — / lor — «snake» (Orel, 1995a, 100), NC *LahrV «id.» (Nik.- St.: 787); Nostr.(l) *LAga «to lie» [as in bed] (OSNJA 271).

Lat. larvae «larvae»; Port, lagarta «lizard» (PRS: 495); Russ, laguska «frog».

Chech.(l) lazar «pain, illness» (RChS: 47); Bud.(l) azar «illness» (Ta: 31).

German(l) Lasaret «hospital» < Lazar (Hebrew) «legendary carer of the sick».

Commentary: see Appendix I

134. ILLNESS 1:

Nostr.(l) *GilV «state of illness, grief» (D 16).

Bushm.(2) Ilia «to die, be dead» (CIII: 544), kia: ij, tia:i] «to be ill, feel sick» (SI: 92), Ik0:eja, h. Ikwenja «be very sick» (SI: 318), lko:eja, lk”ai, khan «to be sick» (Sllb: 424), lk”ai «to be ill, die» (N11: 337), llganillgani «to feel pain» (N11: 527), llgu, k? u «pass opver», llgui «die» (SI: 536).

135. JACKAL:

S.-h.(l) *bar «wolf, jackal», NC(1) *beherci «wolf» etc. (Orel 1995 1,12).

Ling, ebolo (bi-) «jackal» (RLFS: 371).

136. KNEE 1:

Nosti(l)*/a7/«. I «to bend in joints, bone joint» (OSNJA 175); Nostr.(l)+S.-h.(l) *ri/LV«knee, elbow» (D2, 734).

Chech.(l) gola «knee», gola «elbow» (RChS: 244, 273).

Bushm.(2) koa fne, s. !kwa/ni «knee» (N1: 97), llgu Ini «id.» (SVI: 536), khoa, s. koa «id.» (Nil: 427), /noon, /nuar;, s. /no «id.» (SI: 349), fkOnifkuni «elbow» (NIII: 663), tuni «id.» (Cl: 237), Ikuri /nay, /kuri! na «id.» (SV; 326), /okuju (CIII: 356), !khuttsntu, s. kottsntu (SI: 440), kuni, k? unni, s. fkuni (SI: 453), fkuni, s. fkOni (NIII: 665), fkwonni, s. fkuni (Nil: 667), fxwonni: (Nil: 681).

Commentary: cf. Nostr. *nA — may have developed from

UL *-nga «spirit», see ARMPIT, FOREST, NIGHT.

137. KNEE 2:

Nostr.(l) *HoNka «ankle, joint» (D2, 810); Russ.(l) lokot’ «elbow».

M.(3) lulut «knee» (Po: 267).

138. TO KNOW:

Nostr.(l): *ke/anhU«to know» (D 57).

Bushm.(2): fen, fenna «to know» (SI: 643), fan, fana, fanna «to know, listen attentively» (SVIa: 641), ana, enn «to know» (CII: 370).

Nostr. *k’iijnA «wolf, dog», SC *xweEjV«dog», ST *ghwij (Starostin, 1989, 88).

Bushm.(2) kuenia «dog» (Slid: 104), /koii] s. kwii] «id.» (SI: 318), khwii], s. kwii] «id.» (SI: 433), fkhuni (SIIb:662), fkhwe, fkwe, e. g. fkwe ti _ka «the dog is clever» (Nil: 662, 666), koo (SIV: 663), flAn (Slla: 677).

M.(l) ken a! «to know» (Po: 199).

Commentary: In UL the name of a dog also meant «Cunning».

139. LADDER:

Russ, lestnitsa «id.»; Hung.(l) lepcsd le:pa> «id.» (OMS: 749).

M.(3) lutut«knee» (Po: 266).

Commentary: semantics: knee is like a bamboo joint.

140. LAUGH, TO:

Russ.(l) hohotat’ «id.»; Hung, kacag «id.» (OMS II: 601).

M.(3) tertawa (Po: 1029).

141. LAZY 1: (cf ILL)

(RFS: 128); Russ.(l) len’ «laziness»; Engl.(l) lazy, Finn.(l) laiska «lazy» (RFS: 128)

Suahili(4) — legevu «lazy» (RSS: 240).

142. LAZY 2:

Port.(l) mal «evil, harm» (PRS: 520); Russ, malo «little».

Chec(l): mela, malo erg «lazy, lazy person» [erg-«man, person»]; malo «laziness» (RChS: 268).

Bushm.(2) tjoloo «lazy» (CIII: 149). CIII is Hadzapi.

M.(3) malas «lazy»; malu «shame, disgrace»; malang «unlucky»; ma­ting «a thief» (Po: 273); Mgs.(3) malo «embarrassed, shy» (MRS: 314).

143. LEFT:

Nostr.(l)*Ze/aw(i) «left», IE(1) *seuio — «id.» (D 79).

Bushm.(2) se? au «left» (N11: 165).

Bushm. dzau, s. dzou, _dzao, sau, zau, tsau «woman, wife, girl» (N1: 31), llgai, h. Ilgae «woman, left» (Slla: 524).

SB(3)* ’gisw «left» (E 280).

An.(3)*ka-wiRi «id.» (P 86).

Ling.(4) lobOkO (RLFS: 178).


Hung, lusta «lazy», Finn laiska «id.» (A: 128).

Ling, zoba «id.» (RLFS: 94).

UL *leva «left, lazy, stupid»


According to American archaeologist M. Syrett first microlithic (in terms of their stone industries) societies of the Middle East were less egalitarian than their predessesors. It is known that among some nomadic huntert — gatherers there were noticeable differences in men’s and women’s statuses. Argumentation of M. Syrett are mostly based upon the archaeological data on mesolithic Europe.

The data from the Bushman languages (e. g. association of the women with the left and deviant) possibly reflect the reminiscences of this non­egalitarian social pattern which had been adopted to the ecologically deter­mined egalitarian demands of the Bushmen societies (see Kazankov 2002). On the connection between Bushman cultures and spread of microliths to East and South Africa see e. g. Phillipson 1977 London etc.

144. LICK:

Russian lizat’ «to lick»

M.(3) lidah «tongue» (Po: 1128); An(3) *dilaq «to lick» (Sagart 2002: 6).

Ling.(4) — lete «to lick» (RLFS 180).

145. LICK, TO:

Nostr.(l) *LiglME «id.» (D2, 1267).

M.(3) jilat «id.» (Po: 173).

146. LITTLE:

Hung.(l) kicsi [kici «little, small» (OMS: 782).

Chechen(l) кіезиг (in cyrillics) «little» (RChS: 277).

Bushm.(2) Ikarise «a little» (CII: 302); lka:se, lka:si «a little» (SI: 302). Malay(3) kecil «little» (Po.: 799).

Ling.(4) — kuse «id.» (RLFS: 184).

Ambulas(5) kesedi «a little bit» (Am.: 34).

UL *kisa «little, small»

147. LIVE:

S.-h.(l) *?al-/?il — «to be», Nostr.(l) *?elA «to live» etc (Orel 1995 I, 3). Ling.(4) — zela «to live, to be» (RLFS: 127, 56).

Nostr.(l) *hillU «stand, be, exist» (D2, 769); Chech.(l) hi la «to be» (RChS: 54).

M.(3) hidup «to live» (Po: 140).

148. LOOK, TO:

Nostr.(l) *dila «to look at» (D2, 509).

M.(3) lihat «to look, to see» (Po: 255).

149. LOUSE, FLEA 1:

Hung.(l) nyim «squeeze» (OMS II:

M.(3) lintah «leech» (Po: 257).

Ambulas(5) nyemu «louse» (Am.: 58). Ambulas belongs to pTNG pTNG(5) *niman «louse» (IP 47).

150. LOUSE:

Nostr.(l) *kucV «ant» (D2, 850); Hausa(l) kwarkwat «louse» (Mi.: 14); Proto-Chukchan(l) *yjiij «nit» (M: 247).

Bushm(2) koCe-tau «vermin, lice» (SI: 439).

M.(3) kutu «louse» (Po.: 230), An. *kuCu «id.» (Si.: 167). The Malay form is kept here (and in all analogous cases too) because I had found it be­fore (it had been in a draft version of the paper) I knew the An. form.

UL *kutu «louse».

151. LOUSE:

Russ.(l) kusat’ «to bite».

An(3) *kuCu «id.» (S: 167).

152. MEAT 1:

Nostr.(l) *Homsa «meat»; SC *jVmcV«ox, meat» (Starostin 2007, 33). Bushm.(2) m-sa, m-si «food», especially vegetable food»; m «to eat» (N1: 139).

153. MEAT 2:

Nostr.(l) *Llz’agulyVI «fat meat» (D2, 1270).

M.(3) daging«meat» (Po: 818).

154. MOTHER:

NC(1) *dajV «father, mother». Reflexes of it: Nakh.*t/«t/^ «father», Av.-And. *dadV «father», Lak t:at:a «grandfather», Darg. *t:ut:e(s) «fa­ther», Lezgh. *dadVj «father, grandfather, mother», Khin. dada and WC *t:at:V«grandfather, father (daddy)» (Nik.-St.: 397-398).

NC(1) */«/( ‘«mother. grandmother»(Nik.-St.: 673).

Bushm.(2) aija, aijako «mother, grandmother, aunt» (CIII: 7), at. s. kai. eia (SIV: 6), dae. s. to; «mother» (N11: 20), te «same» (NIII: 196).

155. MOUNTAIN 1:

PPN(3) *ma? u>ia (P, 98).

M.(3) gunung «mountain» (Po.: 668).

Ling.(4) ngomba «id.» (RLFS: 97)

156. MOUNTAIN 2:

Russian(l) gora «mountain», Finn.(l) kukkula «hill» (F: 271); Hung.(l) hegv «id.» (OMS I: 297), Baskir(l) tau «id.» (RBS: 142), Turk(l) dag «id.» (RtuS: 73), Chechen(l) gu «liill» (RChS: 741).

UL*g«/ra «mountain». Cf UL*g«/r«/ «to flow»

157. MOUSE:

Nostr.(l) *cikU «mouse» (D2, 354), *cikV«small» (D2, 334).

M.(3) tikus «mouse» (Po: 818).

158. MOUTH:

Nostr.(l) *han/g/A «tongue».

M.(3) ngcmga «to open mouth wide» (Po: 306).

Ling.(4) mongongo (-mi) «voice» (RLFS: 97).

Amerind.(6) *nene «id.» (RN 18).

159. NAME:

Engl.(l) name: Finn.(l) nimi «id.» ( >:); Nostr.(l) nimlu «name, to

Name» (D, 29).

M(3) nama «id.» (Po: 302).

UL *nama «id.»

160. NAPE:

Nostr.(l) *gui]lqlE «nape» (D2, 649).

M.(l) tengkuk«id.» (Po: 730).

161. NARROW:

Nostr.(l) *cen? V«narrow, thin» (D2, 425).

M.(3) sempit «narrow» (Po: 1079).

162. NECK 1:

Nostr(l) *NiKa «neck, neck vertebrae» (OS 330),

SB(3) *rjk0: «neck» (E 663),

Ah.(3) *liqdR «neck» (P 103).

Bushm.(2) ku:, s. ku «neck» (SII: 103), kaiij, ke~i (N1: 405), khou,

!kau, kou (SI: 412), ku, s. !kau, kou, !khou «id.» (SII: 448), xa «upper part of spine» (SI: 496), km7, s. gja’.tj «neck» (Nil: 470), //kau «neck, back of neck» (SI: 561), i^kano «neck» (Cl: 653), #»/’ «id.» (SIV: 663), i^kь «id.» (SVI: 664), — p. ь «id.» (Sllb: 676).

Ling.(4) kingo, nkingo/nkungu (ba-) «neck» (RLFS: 373).

Amerind.(6) nuk’~nuq’«throat» (RN 19).

UL *nika «back part of the neck».

Commentary: Illich-Svitych made his Nostratic reconstruction using only Uralic and Altaic material. But this root is attested in Indo-European languages as well, e. g. Spanish, Portuguese nuca «back of the head», Ger­man Nacke «id.», English neck.

163. NECK 2, THROAT 1

S.-h.(l) *gon — «neck, back of head», ST(1) «neck» (Orel 1995a, 50).

Bushm.(2) dhom, s. dom, doQn «neck» (Cl: 24), _dom, doQn, _dom «to swallow» (SI: 2), dum, s. dom, duko «neck, throat, hole, river» (SVI: 29), u: m, loem, «throat» (SIV: 356), lum «id.» (SVI: 359).


S.-h.(l) *gora1- «throat, neck», Nostr.(l) *kurV «swallow», SC(1) *kwVra «throat», ST(1) *khrцw «id.» (Orel 1995a, 1951).

Bushm.(2) llxre: tu «throat» (SII: 637), llkhauru, s. Ilkauru «back of head, hollow at back of neck» (SI: 574).

165. NEAR:

Nostr.(l) *daKa «near» (OS 61).

NC(1) *tiHV«small» (Nik.-St.: 1399), *hlgVrV«near» (Nik.-St.: 1393); Chechen(l) gerga «near» (RChS: 45).

Malay(3) dekat «near» (Po.: 609).

Malay(3) sedikit«little, few» (Po.: 799).


S.-h.(l) *kenah — «darkness», NC(1) *gg wun? V «smoke», ST(1) *gh(i)u «id.» (Orel 1995a, 73a).

S.-h.(l) *gVm — «be dark», SC(1) *gVmHV «dark, evening» (Orel 1995a, 56); Nostr.(l) *g/mA «darkness, night» (OSNJA 99), Nostr.(l) *гйтз «dark, to close eyes» (D 117), Nostr.(l) *tumV «dark» (D 127), NC(1) *j3mge (~ — /’) «ashes» (Nik.-St.: 681).

NC(1) *ggwbiwmhV/ m(h)iggwV«cloud, mist» (Starostin 1984, 5.8).

Nostr.(l)*K#/w7a «fog, mist», SC(1) *k’wVmHV «id.», Enis.(l): Yug: xoai] «fog» (Starostin, 1989, 64).

W.-Chad.(l) *v-amsi «sky», EC(1) *lams~V«sky, cloud» (Orel 1995a, 61).

Bushm.(2) Ihumsa «clouds» (SIV: 290), Igwai^m «id.» (SI: 285), gum «id.» (SII: 388), /kwax’g’jn «cloud, to make clouds» (SI: 329), x0ni «cloud» (SIV: 501), llgja «id.» (N11: 531), Ukumm «to be cloudy, large black cloud» (N11: 592), фкот «cloud» (Cl: 663), Ikhum «mist» (SI: 314), /кит «id.» (SI: 325), !kau «a waft of mist» (SI: 412), _gwaC«evening» (N1: 52).

SB(3) *jii:m «tinder» (E 594), ju:l «black, dark» (E 654), *jsr}0: «dark» (E 578), *g3no:m «dark, to close eyes» (E 579), *mha: «evening» (E 39)*tjhu? «smoke» (E 160).

Duleri (Nig.-C.)(4) gEni «night» (Blench: 8).

Ambulas(5) gaan «night» (Am: 19).


1) *gVm — in UL appear to be the root «darkness» with *-sa / *-ha being posfixes (I’ here stands either for a or u). Initial UL *g- seem to be opposed to *k — in roots like *gam- «darkness» — *kona «sun», distinguishing between «cold, dark» and «hot, sun» (see also HOLE, SUN).

2) Phonological closeness (with the opposition of the initial k-g) of the some of the above forms to the Nostr. Kawing/1 «armpit» (see # 14) together with their derivational from «sky-night» etymon character tells us that in the Paleolithic there existed a myth in which a Sky God held the Sun (during the night) in his armpits and let it out in the morning. Reflexes of this motive are widely known in comparative mythology (Kazankov 2007: 92-96).


Finn.(l) tutti «dummy» (A: 577), Hung.(l) dudli «id.» (OMS II: 637).

Chechen(l) mlapa (in cyrillics) «teat», dada «breast» (RChS: 637,673).

Akkadan(l) tiilil «nipple, teat» (Mi.: 23).

Ling.(4) ntolo, ntolu (-,-ba) «breast» (RLFS: 102).

UL *tuIu teat / female breast.


S.-h.(l) *moh-/moheh — «head», «brain», EC(1) *тсіїи «brain», ST(1) *nьH «id.» (Orel 1995a, 117); NC(1) *mahnu «id.» (Nik.-St.: 1379), NC *muhwVlV~«nose» (ibid.: 1393).

Alt.(l) *mejzi «brain» (O. A. Mudrak, personal communication), An­cient Indian majjвn m, majjв (f.) «marrow», Avestian mazea- «id.» (Fas — mer, 1986, Vol. III: 638).

Austroasiatic(3) *muh «nose» (Yefimov, 1990: 109).

Scrt.(l) mыkha «mouth, face» (Kochergina, 1996: 515), Tamil(l) muxam «face» (RTS: 467), Malay(3) muka «id.» (IRUS: 275). Direction of the possible borrowing do not bother us much here since neither of the three etymons can have relation to Austroasiatic.

Kobon(5) miilii «nose» (Ko.: 243). Kobon is a Papuan language.


S.-h.(l) *WnVh — «to sigh», Nostr.(l) *?anqV «to breathe», SC(1) *HwenHV, «blood, breathe» (Orel 1995a, 10); Nostr. *Henka «bum» (OS 106).

Bushm.(2) llxau, s. Ilxauka, llxauksn «blood» (SI: 634), Ihu:, Ihь: «to breathe deeply, sigh, moan» (Nil: 289), In In. l/hй~ «to breathe» (Nil: 358), luhй «wind», usually khwe (SII: 358).

SB(3) *nh3m «to breathe» (E 162), *’mha:m «blood» (E 259); other Austroasiatic(3) languages: Sedang mahкamp Katu aham Brфu n ’hаm

S.-h.(l) *msPa[w/y] «wind», SC(1) *muwHV «smell» (Orel 1995a, 106), *marAwV « rain, cloud» (Orel 1995a, 110); *S.-h. *mawuc — l*mayc — « to wash» (Orel 1995a, 113); EC(1) *hmлhwв (—a) «moisture, lake, pool» (Nik.-St.: 538), NC(1) *mHвrcwV«snot» (Nik.-St.: 1400).

Malay(3) merah «red» (Po.: 780). In view of possible semantic ties be­tween «blood» and «red».

Proto-Algonquian(6) *meskwi «blood», mextosi (Aubin 1975, 1250, 1287); plus mise «bear»; *misihkwa «hail» (Costa 1991: 370).

169. NOSE, RAIN:

Chech.(l) moh «wind» (ChRS: 63 ).

SB(3) *mi:wh «rain» (E 142).

Nostr.(l) miza «sweet beverage» Japanese(l) mizu [midzu] «water».

Proto-Semitic(l) *mVzz — «tasty, sweet beverage»; EC(1) *miz:V «sweet», *himiz:u «honey» (MiS 1.11).


1) Semantic items: «face»,»nose», «breathe», «rain», and «wind» can be plausibly bound together if we imagine a Sky Diety of a «tribe» that spoke UL. This diety could have had face and nose; with the latter he breathed which was percepted by the UL people as wind and rain.

2) As to the interconnections of the other semantics presented above there is a substantiation for it from the field of comparative mythology. The wall of the Trиs Frиres Peleolithic cave bears a depiction of a bear (suppos­edly an Ursus arctos, i. e brown bear) «wounded by spears and vomiting blood» (Kurten, 1976; Don’s Maps, The Bear: 14). Our interpretation, based on Bushman mythology, will be different.

Bushman healers in the state of trance capture «rain animal» (normally kanna antelope, probably also a hippo as well). When a Bushman «shaman» kills that animal the soft rain pours on earth (Lewis-Williams, 1981). That is: the blood of the rain animal becoms rain, sweet water, as we shall further see. «Once more the eland figures in this special ritual (medicine dance! kia. — A. K). !Kia «death» is likened to the death of a shot eland. «When an eland is pursued, it sweets more than any animal; this sweat, like the sweat of a medicine man, is considered by the! Kung to contain very powerful n/um (the reader may compare it with the sweat lodges of North American Indi­ans. -A. K.) Brought to bay and near death, the eland trembles and shivers, its nostrils are wide open, it has difficulty in breathing and its hair stands on end… As it dies “melted fat, as it were, together with blood” gushes from its nostrils» (Lewis-Williams, 1983: 91).

The semantic connection between blood and breathing seems not obvious for a modem european scholar. Not so was it for the Paleolithic hunter if we accept a hypothesis, that rain for him resulted from the breathing of a giant mythical female sky-bear. We suppose that in the Paleolithic notion she (the sky-bear) breathed and thus voluntarily gave part of her blood to her children, that is hunter-gatherers, blood that turned into sweet rain and gave life to plants and animals. According to Bushmen notions (/Xam and! Kung) «eland when cut open have a very sweet strong smell, much like the smell of honey».. «Scent is one medium for the transference of the supernatural from animal to shaman, and through its association with the eland, honey came to be seen as powerful as well» (Hewitt, 1999: 1; Lewis-Williams, 1983b: 45-46).

We must also bear in mind that the birth of Homo sapiens sapiens’ original corpus of mythology took place most probably either in Eastern Af­rica ort in the Levant in semi-arid ecological conditions (time-stressed envi­ronment, see above). So the rain there should have indeed been a life-giving phenomenon.

Returning to Bushmen ethnology we can add that the /Xam Bushmen of the Cape Province had a tradition of the mokoma trance dance during which the curers sometimed bleeded from their noses, which was considered akin to temporary death and pretty dangerous for their health (Lewis-Williams, 1983:7; Huffman, 1983: 50-51). The depictions of both the nose-bleeding shamans and nose-bleeding kanna antelopes (rain animals) in the South Afri­can rock art are also present (see, for example «The San and the Eland», 1998: 3).

Bear (medicine bear or bear from the myths) among many American In­dian tribes is a shamanistic figure (Loucks, 1985: 222-223). Among Nez Percй Indians the grizzly bear girl after having married a man forsees her death while singing a song and bleeding from the mouth (Boaz, 1917: 198— 200). Among Winnebago (Hotcak) a myth relates of a bear offering itswef as a food source at the council of animals in exchange for the perpetual dark­ness (LaMere, Shinn, 1928: 87-89, see also: Loucks, 1985).

Now about nose and brain. Imagine a hunter viewing a full-grown bear sniffing suspected human presence. The bear would raise on its hindlegs, loos around and widen its nostrils… What would think the hunter this animal had been doing? The answer is — thinking, intensely thinking! For an ancient hunter then the connection between smelling (sniffing) and thinking would be much more stronger than for the modem people. To smell meant then to think, that is, to know where the danger comes from, where is a prey etc. [«…when the Tungus are asked how a bear knows when he has met you once before, they answer: “He smells it”… “The bear senses everything, hears everything, knows the activities and intentions of human beings and, above all, remembers everything”» (Don’s Maps, The Bear: 21). Similar beliefs exist among the Tlingits (McClellan, 1975: 127), Eastern Crees (Skinner, 1911) and other American Indians. And we may add that this bear may have been in the Palaeolithic both the sky-bear and mother-earth-bear, mother of all humans.

As for the sweetness of the rain there are such parallels as miwh in SB and milk-Milch in Germanic (< IE) languages. The name of the bear is also indicative. It is misha in Russian, maxkwa in Proto-Central-Algonquian lan­guages (Aubin, 1975: 166). mizV «sweet» in North Caucasian (Nik.-St.: 824), mizu «sweet beverage in Nostratic etc.

The given examples evidence to a fact that for to discern the semantic connections between ancient etymons a cooperation is needed between a comparativist proper (a linguist) and a specialist in comparative mythology.

170. NOSE 2:

Russian(l) nos «nose»

Ling.(4) nsOngs «point» (RLFS: 231).

Ambulas(5) nebi «tooth, tusk, beak, point (pencil, spear) (Am.: 54).

173. OLD:

Nostr.(l) *Kirh/1 «old» (ОС 165).

Bushm.(2) kira, keira «old» (SIV: 93).

Swahili kale (-) «ancient times» (U: 492)

174. OTHER:

Nostr.(l) *HanV«other» (D 2, 807).

M.(3) lain «id.» (Po: 233).

175. OWL, HAWK:

Engl.(l) hawk; Chech.(l) g’irg’a «id.» (RChS: 782).

M.(3) burung elang «hawk» (Po: 1130). Burung means «bird».

Suahili(4) mwewe «id.» (RSS: 658).

176. TO PLAIT:

Nostr.(l) *kurV«to plait, tie», IE(1) *kwer — / *kur- «to build» (D 101).

Bushm.(2) _guru, s. gu, kuru «to build, make» (Nil: 52), _guru «house, large hut» (NIII: 52), guri «to tie» (CII: 389), llgerri «to hold, tie», e. g. zu ku llgerri tu, llk”au tu «people tie a hut, work the hut» (N1, Nil: 530).


Nostr.(l) *zlalnA «foetus, pregnancy» (OS 353).

EC(1) GGIonV«pregnant» (D.-St., 60).

Malay(3) mengandung «id.» (Po.: 604).

178. PRESS, TO:

Nostr.(l) *tunKV «to press» (D, 128).

M.(3) tekan «id.» (Po: 501).

179. PUS:

Russian(l) gnoj «pus», Hung.(l) genny [genn] «id.» (OMS: 288).

Chechen(l) noniKba (in cyrillics) «id.» (RChS: 120), Chinese(l) nong «id.» (RKS: 78).

Malay(3) nanah «id.» (Po.: 303).

Ling.(4) mayina (RLFS: 94).

UL *nona «pus».


Again as in the case with the BARK (see 15a) I knew that the Malay form repeats the Proto-Austronesian one (*nanah, «pus») only in 2008; see (St.-P., 7). This testifies to usefulness of a simple check between the Nostratic and Malay (with subsequent search for the Proto-Austronesian forms corresponding) to Malay.

180. PUNISH, TO:

Engl, punish’, Port.(l) punho «fist», punhada «punch with the fist» (PRS: 666-667); Hung.(l) biintet «to punish» (OMS I: 883); Chech.(l) buj «fist» (RChS: 262).

M.(3) punya «to have» (Po: 375).

181. PUT, TO

Nostr.(l) *dEt-H «to put, to place» (D2,497).

M,(3) taruh «to put», meletakkan «to put», letak«position» (Po: 495, 929).

182. RED:

Tamil(l) sem «red» (RTS: 439).

Chechen(l) ціеп (incyrillics) «id.» (RChS: 257).

Chinese(l) hong (RKS: 183).

Ling.(4) — tana «id.» (RLFS: 172).

UL *tana «red»

183. ROAD 1:

W.-Chad.(l) *gag — «road», ST(1) *кз:і] «road, path» (Orel 1995a, 57). SB(3) *gu:n «road, stairs» (E 150).

184. ROAD 2:

Nostr.(l) *gUlE «to go (away), start going (away), set out» (D2, 616). M.(3) jalan «road», «to go» (Po: 163).

185. ROAST:

S.-h.(l) *foh-, «fire, bum», Nostr.(l) *piywV, «fire», SC(1) *-pVHV «bum (v.), heat (n.)», ST *pu/bhu «id.» (Orel 1995a, 45).

Bushm.(2) pixlo «to boil» (CIII: 158).

SB(3)*buh «to roast» (E 169).

Ambulas(5) iwfl «fire, heat» (Am.: 92).

UL *poha «to roast»

186. ROB, TO:

Engl, rob, to; Swedish ran a. att «to rob»; Portug. Roubar «steal, rob» (PRS: 724 ); Russ, g-rabit’ «to rob»; Hung, ki-rabol-ni «id.» (OMS 1:30-5); Finn, roostaa «id.» RFS: 389; Estonian roovima «id.» (RES: 68);

M.(4) me-rebut «to take away» (Po: 886);

Lingala(5) — yiba «to rob» (RLS: 100)

UL *raba~roba «to take away, to rob.

187. ROPE, TO TIE:

Proto-Samodian(l) *kurkoj «rope, cord»; Proto-Tungus-Manchu(l)

*gure «tie» (n.), «горе» (AnH: 81).

Tamil кайирьі [каіігьі] «горе» (RTS: 104).

S.-h.(l) *cal — «rope, to tie», EC(1) *cwolHV«belt» (Orel 1995a, 55). Bushm.(2) xollaxa «to tie» (SV: 260), eja /ejako «rope, leather thong» (SIII: 272), !xauka, Іхаикзп «to tie» (SI: 498), kae «to tie on, inspan» (Cl: 76), kaie //kae «to tie together» (Cl: 77), k”wdou, k”wdoT (there is a dis­crepancy on the end-vowel between the main corpus and semantic index of Bleek’s book) «to tie» (CII: 128), tl? oa «to tie» (CIII: 205), twa, и. dwa «tie up» (SIV: 243), gai «close, tie on, tie off», s. go: «close», g0, gwi «to tie» (SIV: 375), gwi, и. !gwe gu: «to wear, tie» (SI: 393); gwi «to tie» (NIII: 393); ki «to tie, tie on» (CIII: 580); //хай, и. //xau «to tie a rope, set a snare» (N1: 633), i^?am, i^?amma «to tie, stick in» (CII, N1: 641) [«Auen» and Nharo tribes (CII, N1): 641, had close cultural ties], //haito, «to tie, tie up» s. //he, //hain «to tie» (SV: 540), //hit] «to tie, tie up, hang» (SI: 542), //ka? a «to wear, tie on» (N1: 547); //kau, _//kau «to wear» (Nil: 561); //kai «to tie», s. //ka? a «wear, tie on» (SV: 550); //kh? a «to tie» (CIII: 572); //khau, //khauwa «to tie, tie up» (SHb: 573); jJcai, s. kai, //kaekau, i^kei «to tie» (CII: 654).

An.(3) *talin «rope» (P 153), or An. *Calis «id.» (Si.: 154).

Ling(4) — kanga «to tie» (RLFS: 271).

I am pesonally extremely impressed by the coincidence of the EC — *cwdiHV and SV (Masarwa, southern Botswana)-xollaxa forms. Five out of six phonemes here practically coincide, and in the sixth pair x corresponds to c, i. e. these are phonemes with high frequency of mutual transformation, in our case a laryngal subbstiting a fricative lacking in Bushman languages.

Such cases of full coincidence (both phonetic and semantic of course) exeeed number 3 (see e. g. CLOUD and KNEE), so the probability, in our view, that NASCA and Bushman proto-languages are genetically unrelated equals to about zero. Forms from SI, for which borrowing from the Bantu languages is excluded are also very close to SV.


Nostr.(l) *biiKa «to bend, be bent»; Amerind(6) *puku ~ *poko «knee, elbow, to kneel» (RN 31).

Ling.(4) bukutu «round» (RLFS: 174).

189. RUN:

Nostr.(l) *rUcV«to run» (D 116).

Bushm.(2) k”wa(/aka «runquickly, runaway» (SI: 127), kakaua «run along» (SI: 419), !ku:xe, !u:xe «run, chase» (SI: 455), !xoe. ja «run from smb., smth.» (SI: 501), IlnauCp «to run after a wounded buck» (SI: 617), nok — haa «run away» (Cl: 149).

SB(3) *lU:t «to run» (E: 209).

M.(3) ber-lari «to run»; lari «run, running» (Po: 600-601).

Suahili(4) haraka «to run» (RSS: 33).

190. SAD:

Spanish(l) sed «thirst»(PRS: 738); Engl.(l) sorrow, Finn(l) suru «sadness» (RFS: 522); Hung.(l) szomoru [somoru:] «sad» (OMS II: 78)

M.(3) sedih «id.» (Po: 430).

Suahili(4) kihoro «deep sadness» (RSS: 392)

191. SALIVA:

Nostr.(l) *hoHLIal~haHLIal «liquid, saliva» (D, 145).

M.(3) liur «saliva» (Po: 259); Mgs.(3) rora «id.» (RMgS: 454).

192. SALT:

NC(1) *cwenhV(-cetnhV) «salt» (Nik.-St.: 371)

Swahili(4) chumvi (-) «id.» (U: 278).

193. THE SAME:

EngL(l) same; Finn.(l) satna «id.» (RFS: 232)

M.(3) *sama «id.» (Po: 418).

UL *sama «id.»

194. SAND:

S.-h.(l) *cir — «sand», EC(1) *sdre «id.», ST(1) *sraj «id.» (Orel 19951,24).

Ling.(4) zelO «id.» (RLFS: 245).

195. SANDAL:

Chad.(l) *kAbA «a sandal [footgear]» (Illich-Svitych 1966, 1.21).

Bushm.(2) tabo «sandal» (Cib: 187), llkabo «id.» (Cl: 549).

Here it may be a borrowing into Bushman since Central Bushman are in fact Khoe languages.

196. SCALE:

Engl.(l) scale; Russ.(l) cesuja «id.»

M.(3) sisik «id.» (Po: 461).

197. TO SEE 1:

S.-h.(l) **arek — «see, understand», EC(1) *?a-rqqIV «to see» (Orel 1995a, 30).

Bushm.(2) llkarroksn «to see» (SI: 752, 559).

198. TO SEE, EYE 2:

Nostr.(l) *cuHV«to see» (^ 91).

Bushm.(2) tjaxu, s. tsaxau «eye» (Slle: 204, 213), tsain, s. tsaxu «eyes» (SIII: 211), tsaxau, tsaxe, ts? axau, ts? axu, tsaxem «eye, berry» (SI: 213), tsoo, s. ts? a:xu «eye» (SIV: 220) tai, taii «eye, eyes» (Cl: 224), takai «eyes» (Cl: 224), txai, s. tsaxau: «eye, eyes» (Cib: 238), xtsai, s. tsaxau «same» (Cla: 260), jJcai, s. «eye» (SII: 655).

Se, se:, s. syt] «see» (N1: 165), sitj, sin «see, look» (N11: 169), sn, srj, s. sit] «id.» (N11: 171), sytj, sit], srj «to see» (NIII: 176), ts? xairo, s. tai «id.» (Cla: 222), Inhai, Inhe, Inlit, s. !na, Ine, Ini «id.» (Slla: 347).

SB(3)*sM: «to see» (E 56).

An.(3) *Cuqun «to see»

UL *suha «to see».

199. SEE, EYE 3:

S.-h.(l) *luk — / luk — «bird», NC *leqIwV «large bird, eagle», ST *lak «eagle, hawk» (Orel, 1995a, 101).

Bushm.(2) luga:ssi, s. /ga:, /ga:si «to see, eye» (CIII: 131). Plus Sumerian lugal «lord», Lugalbanda etc. Our implication here is that the image of an eagle was used in Sumerian culture as a symbol of a ruler. An eagle is obviously a sharp-eyed and impressive bird.

200. SEIZE:

Nostr.(l) ?ЕтЛ «seize» (D2, 133).

Proto-Lezg.(l) *c:imc:(a) «ant» (Nik.-St. :325); Chcch.(l) zingai «id.» (RChS: 294).

M.(3) semut «ant» (Po: 441).


Russ.(l) мысль (mbisF) «thought»; Finn.(l) miele «thought» (RFS: 476).


NC(1) *lakwE«whetstone, to whet» (Nik.-St.: 201).

Japanese(l) togu «to sharpen» (Russian-Japanese Dictionary: 799), Russian(l) точить (tochit’) «to sharpen».

Bushm.(2) talule, tiga, tika «to sharpen» (SV: 194, 203), tsAm, фхЛm «to sharpen a wooden point» (N1: 222).

SB(3) *TsU:l «to sharpen» (E: 591).

M.(3) *tajam «sharp» (Po: 482); An(3) *Cazem (Sagart2002: 6).

203. TO SHAVE:

NC(1) *HamxV«to shave, shear, cut» (Nik.-St.: 544).

Bushm.(2) Ikakaso «to cut hair, shave» (SI: 298), Ixuri, gum «shave» (SI: 388, 366).

204. SHINE:

Japanese(l) terasu «id.»; Chech.(l) sirla de «bright day» (RChS: 596).

M.(3) terang «bright, light, clear» (Po: 511).

205. SHOW, TO:

Nostr.(l) *tik/ii «to show» (D2, 2257).

M.(3) lunjuk «to show, to point at» (Po: 538). 181. SHORT:

Russian(l) korotkij «short», Portuguese(l) curto «id.», Turkish(l) kisa «id.» (RtuS: 148), Hung.(l) keves «little» (OMS I: 783)

Tamil(l) куттаийана (in cyrillics) «short» (PTC: 432).

Nostr.(l) (my suggestion) *kura «short»

Chechen(l) к! езиг [kezig «little» (RChS: 277).

Bushm.(2) kare, «a little» (Cl: 81), /are «id.» (CII: 269), tkanni, «little» (SI: 301), Ikarise, «a little» (CII: 303), lka:se, Ika:si, «a little» (SI: 302), lk”are «little, small» (CII: 338) etc.

Malay(3) kurang «little, less» (Po.: 228).

Ling.(4) — kuse «short» (RLFS: 171).

Yoruba(4) kiirii «id.» (L: 127).

UL *karu «far», *kuru «short», *kura «crane»

206. SIDE:

IE(1) *bhaghu — «side»; EC(1) *p~iiggV «id.» (Starostin 1988, 2.11); Mong.(l) za:zu: «id.» (RMS: 43).

Bushm.(2) lka:xu «side» (SI: 564), llxaxu, s. Ilxatj «id.» (SI: 634), !oasi, oae «on this side» (CII: 490).


Nostr.(l) *cimV«to be (come) quiet/silent» (D2, 393).

M.(3) cliam «to be silent» (Po: 89).

208. TO SING:

Nostr.(l) *к/іН/Л «to sing» (OS 164).

Bushm.(2) фке:кі s. Ilkeijcie, і «id.» (SII: 659).

Malagasian(3) hira, tonton-kira «song»; mihira «ing» (Rakutumangi 1970: 338).

Gusii(4) — kuur — «to shout» (Gu.: 32).

209. SISTER:

Nostr.(l) *UdV«sister» (D2, 799).

M.(3) adik [adi’] «younger sibling» (Po: 2).

210. SKIN 1:

Nostr.(l) *koyH[a] «skin, bark» (D 169); Nakh-Lezg.(l) isogloss *Оёгкм>е (~ — a) «skin, sheepskin» with the note «not vewy reliable» (Nik.-St.: 456), Tsez.-Lezg.(l) isogloss *GoLV«skin, wineskin, sheath» (Nik.-St.: 463).

Bushm.(2) gukwaa (CI:50) rises we think, considerably, the probability of the *Оёгкм>е (~ — a)’s existence.

Bushm. dzoruu «skin» (0:50), gukwaa «milk skin» (0:50), kO:a «skin» (Cl: 33), !kola «apron» [(made of skin, of course — A. K) CII: 444)], фке]а «to skin» (CIII: 659).

SB(3) *kdmhO: ? «skin» (E 235).


Both NC isoglosses possibly stem from one etymon.

211. SKIN 2:

IE(1) *mak «skin». EC(1) *c’c’ekwV(~zz-) «id.» (Starostin, 1988, 2.9)

Bushm.(2) did s. tь «id.» (SU: 26).

212. SKIN 3:

EC(1) *c’c’вkwV(~zz-) «skin, pelt»

Ambulas(5) sйpй «skin, bark» (Am.: 70).

213. SKY:

Nakh-Avar isogloss(l) *r! hV«time, day» (Nik.-St.: 952).

Bushm.(2) _d0axu «sky» (SIIc: 27), dzaxu, s. !gwaxu «sky» (N11: 31), orehe «id.» (Nllb: 182), ! a:xu, s ka:xu, !gwaCpcu «id.» (SII: 373, 418), du_si «sky» (Sllb: 29).


The collation of the Av.-And. and Nakh reflexes belong to G. Dumйzil (Nik.-St.: 952; Dumйzil, 1933, 15).

214. SLEEP, TO:

Chech.(l) diza «to go to sleep» (ChRS: 78).

M.(l) tidur «to sleep» (Po: 516).

215. SLEEP, TO:

Nostr.(3) *lulV«id.» (S, 99).

Suahili(4) *-lala «id.» (RSS: 566).

UL *lula «id.»

216. SNAKE 1:

S.-h.(l) *ler — / lor — «snake» (Orel 1995a, 100), NC(1) *LahrV «id.» (Nik.-St.: 787).

Nostr.(l) *LAga «to lie» [as in bed] (OS 271).

Lat. larvae «larvae»; Port, lagarta «lizard» (PRS: 495); Russ, lвguska «frog»; Sert. Nвga «serpent» (Kochergina, 1996: 311), Tamil(l) naxam «snake» (RTS: 351).

Bushm.(2) /gauba, /gaula, /gauo «snake, pufadder» (Cl: 276), /ha s. кй /ка, s. Ikhв «snake» (Sllb: 286, 294) /кай, /kau, /kwe~ «id.» (NIII: 303, 332), !kh? au «id.» (Slla: 335) /k”au «id.» (SI: 338), ge, _gi «id.» (N1: 380), kau, kha: «serpent» (SI: 412, 423), na like «boa constictor», prob. «py­thon» (Nil: 477), llgai] llganie, s. Ilgao «snakes» (N1: 527), lige: «a short thick snake» (Nil: 530), llgu llkha «large watersnake» (Nil: 536) llneiaba «snake, cobra» (CII: 618), Ф? ам>а

S. фаи «snake» collective term (N11: 642).

Hausa(l) tsawo «length» (RHS: 66).

Mlg.(3) lava «long» (RMgS: 114).

Suahili(4) — refit «id.» (RSS: 129)

Ling.(4) — Iat «id.» (RLS: 111).

217. SNAKE 2:

Nostr.(l) *KULA «snake» (OS 179).

Bushm.(2) Hku:Lu «snake, green “boomslang”»(NII: 593), kit nit «worms which make holes in trees» (SI: 665).

An.(3)*kalati «worm» (P 198), *SulaR «snake» (Sagart 2002: 6).

218. SOFT 1:

S.-h.(l) *len — «be soft, weak», Nostr.(l) *iejna «soft, weak», ST(1) *«e/«id.» (Orel 1995a, 99).

SB(3)*l3bs:n «id.» (E 322).

An.(3) *lemek «soft» (Blust…); Malay(3) lembek «softened» (Po.: 818).

219. SOFT 2:

Nostr.(l)*Za/wa «to soften» (OSNJA 254).

Bushm.(2) gum, guQn «to soften a skin» (N1: 50), kam, kamma «to be­come soft» (N11: 78), i=amma «soft» (N11: 641), ^ko(jn, i^ko(jnma «to make soft» (SI: 663).


Nostr.(l) *ba. gu ’ ’ ~*bahgu ’ ’ «forearm» (D2, 176).

M.(3) bahu «shoulder» (Po: 25).

221. SOUL, LIFE:

M.(3) roh «spirit» (Po.: 698).

Swahili(4) roho (-) «soul, life»


Port.(l) soar «to sound» (PRS: 753); Finn.(l) savel «melody» (RFS: 261).

M.(3) suara «voice, sound» (Po: 467).

Suahili(4) sauti «sound, voice» (RSS: 176, 107)

223. SPEAK, SING 2:

S.-h.(l) *lag — «to speak», EC(1) *le? IwV «word» (Orel 1995a, 94); Russian lajat’ «to bark» (I am a Russian), Spanish ladrar «bark», Italian latrare «id.»; IE *la «to bark» (St. 2007: 135); Bashkir jbirlau «sing» (RBS: 529), Finn.(l) laulu «to sing» (Yeliseev 1978: 187).

SB(3) *lah «speak, scold» (E 98).

Malay(3) lagu «song» (IRUS: 229).

Nig.-Cong.(4): Ling, — lela «sing» (about birds), «bark» (RLFS: 246, 178); Fula laana «to curse, damn, blame» (Z: 313); Swahili laani «to curse» (K: 368); Ling, — lemwa «to scold» (RLFS: 301).

Ambulas(5) lale «cicada» (Am.: 45). Cf. Malay(3) lalat «a fly» (Po.: 817).

UL *lala «bark, wail, sing, cross». Compare with *laga «snake» for the distinction between *g and */ in UL.


1) There must have been a Nostratic word for «sing», but I am unable to reconstruct it not being a linguist. I knew about the Indoeuropean form [*la — «bark» (Starostin 2007: 135) only after I had noticed the similarity of the Russian and Roman etymons].

2) The Proto North Caucasian semantics is reconstructed by S. A. Starostin as «to sound, shout», but his own semantic reconstructions are: for the Nakh. «to howl, bellow, bark»; for the Av.-And. — «bark»; for the Lezg. — «to wail, howl, thunder, speak, bark»; and only for the W.-Cauc. he «econstructed «shout» (Nik.-St.: 548). So, the semantic reconstruction for the NC should be «to shout, wail, bark».

3) The «coincidence» of the Finnish, Spanish-Portuguese, Bashkir, North Caucasian, Sanskrit, Fula and Lingala semantics suggest that in the UL this etymon meant «bark, wail, sing, cross». Since a word *lara/laga «snake» also existed in the UL (see SNAKE), «to bark» should have sounded as *lala. In colloquial Russian «to cross» will be lajat’sja (-sja is a reflexive suffix), that is: to behave like two (or more) dogs. The evidence of the crossing wild dogs should have predated the dog domestication, however.

224. SPEED

Engl.(l) speed, Hung.(l) sebes «fast» (OMS I: 118).

M.(3) sepal «id.» (Po: 617).

Suahili(4) — epesi «id.» (RSS: 54).

UL *sepa «fast».


Russ.(l) bryzgi «id.»; Finn.(l) pirskottaa «to splash» (RFS: 362).

M.(3) percik «splashes» (Po: 349).

Ling.(4) — punzwa «to splash» (RLS: 53).

226. SPLIT 1:

S.-h.(l) *pilak — «knife, axe», EC(1) *bulgwV «ахе», Enis.(l) *pu? ul «ахе» (Orel 1995a, 128). Russian pita «saw (n.)»

SB(3) * ’blah «to split» (E 461),

An.(3)*bslaq «id.» (P 117).

227. SPLIT 2:

Nostr.(l) *bicV «to break» (OS I: 179), Hung, bicska «knife» (OMS I: 982).

SB(3) *’p3cah «break, crush» (Yefimov, 1990: 122, the author believes SB term to be a loanword from An. * pjcaq «break to pieces»). Compare An. *pisaw -«knife» (E: 119).

228. STAR:

NC(1) *zwhari l*zwahri «star» (Nik.-St.: 1098-1099).

Bushm.(2) l? waikje «stars» (Slla: 629), llwak”in «air» (Sla: 629).


Chech.(l) cog a «id.» (RChS: 653).

M.(l) tahan 1) «to endure», 2) «stable» (Po: 480).

230. STEP:

Nostr.(l) *hallulKV«to step, walk» (D2, 771).

M.(3) langkah «step» (Po: 239).

231. STICKY:

Nostr.(l) *lipa «sticky» (D 125).

Malay(3) lent « glue (n.)», lengket«sticky» (Po.: 765, 791).

Ling.(4) bolembo (-ma) «glue (n.)» (RLFS: 164).

232. STOMACH 1:

IE.(l) *guet — «intestines, stomach», EC(1) *qqwata «id.» (Starostin

1988, 2.7).

Bushm.(2) Iko: CeiC «belly, stomach» (SI: 317), IkOxu «part of stomach» (SI; 321), IkwaiC/kwaQri «stomach of a bird or animal» (SI: 330), lkwei(Jkwa(/re «stomachs» (SI: 332), !kautu «stomach, belly» (SI: 416).

233. STOMACH 2:

Nostr.(l) *Karblil «stomach, insides» (OS 214).

Bushm.(2) kauaba «body» (CII: 83), Ikakhjo, Ikhaie «id.» (Cl: 298, 311),

!auki, s. a:n, !ouksn «id.» (SI: 372), !gauke, s. !kauksn, ouksa «id.» (SII: 379).


Nostr.(l) *palgi «belly» (St. 142). Nostr.(l)+S.-h.(l) *borHu «id.» (D2, 236). Russ.(l) briiho «belly»; Port.(l) barriga «id.».

M.(3) perm «stomach» (Po: 353).

235. STORM:

Nostr.(l) *bora «grayish-brown», *bura «storm» (OS 18; Starostin

1989, 3); NC(1) *bHurV«id.» (Starostin 1989, 3).

M.(3) badai «hurricane, taiphoo»; buram «turbid» (Po: 22, 57).

Ling.(4) bongi «storm» (RLFS: 55).

UL *bura «storm», possibly also «brown».


Nostr.(l) jan’/’Л «stretch, pull» (

Malay(3) merentang «stretch» (Po.: 834).

Ling, — benda «pull, stretch» (RLFS: 343, 205).


Hung, hula [butO] «stupid».

An. buCa «blind» (Si.: 167).

Ling. miso-pOto «blind» (RLFS: 314)

UL *buta «blind»

238. SUN, ELAND:

S.-h.(l) *kum — / ktirn — «bum», Nostr.(l) «id.», Alt.(l) *kiirjV

«id.» (Orel 1995b, 27).

Bushm.(2) ke, Iken «sun, day» (SIV: 307), Ikem: «to become warm» (SI: 309), Ikam, s. IkAm «sun» (Nil: 299), Hkami, Hkammi, s. Hxam «id.» (SI: 555), Hkoe, Hkoi, Hoe s. Hkoii] «id.» (SII: 584, 625), ’кита, s. /кат, IkAm (N1: 689), ’gam, s. Ikam «id.» (Cl: 687).

SB(3) *7un «fire» (E 135), Mon-Khmer(3): Sedang on «id.», Katu????Brou oinh «id.» (DDT).


Nostr. *lamu «morning, daylight» (OS 124).

Bushm. Iguma «day, early morning» (Nil: 283), !gau-e «dawn, day» (SI: 379), Hum, s. Ilui, Hkoi «sun, day» (SIII: 628).


Bushm. k”0ma, k”0mati «eland» (CIII: 125), gum «id.» (SVI: 389), ka, s. khan, jJcanthi «id.» (SIV: 402), koi] «canna» (Slid: 100).

UL *kona «sun».

Commentary: Homed animal (canna or aurochs, or somebody similar) personified in UL sun. Sun (day) have been opposed to night (darkness) through possible anlaut *k / *g phonetic opposition, see NIGHT.

As to the validity of *k / *g opposition, see 4 HOLE.


Nostr.(l) *jarA «to shine»; *gehRa ~ gERha «sunshine, day» (OSNJA, 145, 82); Nostr.(l) *dilV«sunshine» (D, 15).


M.(3) tenggak «id.».

241. SWIFT:

Nostr.(l) *turA:, «swift», NC(1) *=й /F«id.» (Nik.-St.: 284). Bushm.(2) tsarao «light, swift» tsara ka «quickly» (Cl: 212), arriarri «be quick, hurry» (N1: 371), arro, arroko, arruko «quickly» (SI: 11), arugu form of aroko «quickly» (used in mythology, SI: 11).


The abovbe presented etymons possibly stem from the meaning «to ro­tate quckly a firestick», see. 34. TURN.

242. TALK:

Portuguese(l) (eg.) falar «to talk» (PRS: 386).

Ambulas(5) bul (bulu, bule) «talk» (Am: 15).

243. TENDON:

Finn.(l) janne «tendon» (A: 581), Hung.(l) in «id.» (OMS II: 705), Ling.(4) nyunyuku (li-) «id.» (RLFS: 329).

Ketchua(6) anku (p. 3), Sioux(6) к cm.

244. THREE:

An(3) *tdlu «three» (Si: 143).


SH(1) *gora/1- «throat, neck», Nostr. *kurV «swallow», SC *kwVra «throat», ST *khrdw «id.» (Orel, 1995a, 1951).

Bushm. Ilxre: tu «throat» (SII: 637), llkhauru, s. Ukauru «back of head, hollow at back of neck» (SI: 574).

Finn.(l) kurkku «throat» (RFS: 118), M.(3) lekak «id.» Po: 501).

246. THUNDER, SKY, FIRE, LIGHTNING: (see also TURN) Nostr.(l) * clu I і «fire» (OS 71).

Bushm.(2) tala, talata, talate «thunder» (NIII: 189), tali, tari «flame» (NIa: 189).

SB(3)*zrF: «sky» (E 332), see also names of the Indoeuropean deities Celtic Taranis, Germanic Thor, Slavic Perun, Baltic Perkunas etc.

SPEAK 1: tali-si 4-way agreement in Swadesh (Swadesh 1956).

247. A TICK:

Russian(l) таракан (tarakan), «cockroach», which of course is a loan­word from a Turkic language, see Bashkir(l) таракан (tarakan) (RBS: 787).

SB(3) *drskay «a tick» (E 230).


S.-h.(l) *kal — / kawal — «to speak», EC(1) *?V-gwVl — «id.» (Orel, 1995a, 83). In the work of 1989 S. A. Starostin compared Nostr. and NC etymons *к’й/ІН/й and *?V-gwVl — «speak» (Starostin 1989, 83). Illich-Svitych’s vari­ant is *Ka(lH)a «tongue, to speak» (OS 221).

Nostr.(l) *telhlV «to say»; S.-h.(l) *ta’- «to speak» (Orel 1995b, 45); Nostr. *tilV «voice», S.-h. *til — «to cry» (Orel 1995b, 47); PK.(1) tA(x)xw «to speak» (D: 57).

S.-h. *tVlVh — «long» (in size), Nostr. *tel(h)V «id.», ST *dhel «to stretch» (Orel 1995b, 140). See also # 121.

Bushm.(2) tali, s. tari, teri, teni, ta:m «tongue» (NIII: 189), tari, s. teri, teni, tali «id.» (N1: 193), nthaLi «id.» (N11: 149), ta:m, s. tali, tarli «id.» (CII: 191), tamba, s. tali, ta:m «id.» (Nib: 190), lenni, /err i, «id.» (SI: 272), taqla, taqli «to ask for, beg» (SI: 191), flan, tlana, tana «to speak, talk, ring, crow, resound» (SV: 191), taan «vibrate, sound, tremble» (SI: 189), etc.

Bushm. J/kaCfa, JlkaCfaQ «to speak», n. «language» (SII: 554), haija, — haje «to talk, to speak» (SIV: 56), ke~:i, s. k e~ «to say, to talk» (N1: 420), ke~i «to speak» (SII: 568), koa, koa «to speak to, say to, scold» (Nil: 437), khe~:i Hau «to speak truly» (SI: 426), llkai] , s. Ilka, llkala «to speak, talk, bleat» (NIII: 556), Ikan «tongue» (SI: 300), фк-xlwa, фкиїпа (Slla: 667, 656).

Bushm. _рзгі, s. tala, tana «to thunder» (NIII: 198), tha:La «lightning» (Nil: 199), tali, tari «flame» (NIa: 189), tara, ta^ra «to shine, lighten» (N1: 193).

Amerind.(6) *kwal~kwel «say, speak» (RN 28).


In NIII «tongue», and «thunder» are near omonyms. Semantic develop­ment of the type thunder / lightning > tongue, speak can not, we think, be explained otherwise than by excepting the existence of a concept in UL that lightning is a tongue of a deity, whose personification is a dark storm-cloud. Forms similar to tala «speak, talk» are indeed widespread in various linguis­tic families.

249. TONGUE 2, LICK:

S.-h.(l) *lep — «to lick», SC(1) *X’VpV/X’VbV «tongue» (Orel 1995a, 95). Nostr.(l) *lipa «sticky», IE(1) *leip — «to smear, to glue» (D 25).

SB(3) *lspist «tongue» (E 674).

Ling. (4) — loba «to speak» (RLFS: 94).

250. TOOTH 1:

IE(1) *d~a(n)k — «to bite» (NS: 129)

Arab(l) sinn

An(3) lino

251. TREE:

Finn.(l) kojvu «birch-tree» (RFS: 104).

An(3) *kayu «wood» (

Nostr.(l) *koywa «birch tree» (D2, 976). Attested in U and A. A. Dol — gopolsky further comments: «The word may have been borrowed by the N (Nostratic. — A. K.) dialects underlying U and A from aboriginal lgs of North­ern Eurasia».

252. TO TURN, ROUND 1:

S.-h.(l)*Wl — «turn», Nostr.(l) *kol? V«round», SC(1) *gwVl(g)V«id.», ST(1) kw(r)el «id.» (Orel 1995a, 92). Illich-Svitych’s variant of Nostratic is *kol/1 «round» (OS 202).

Bushm.(2) kara «to roll» (N1: 81), llkala «id.» (NIII: 554), llkari «to roll, twist» (NIII: 559), kwerrekwerre «round» (SI: 113), kyrri:ja «wide, round» (SI: 116), kao: «to turn» (SII: 80) кОЮкОЮ «to turn, drill a hole» (NIII: 99).

SB(3)%/7 «round» (E 260).

253. TO TURN 2:

Nostr.(l) *turE «to turn» (D 130).

Bushm.(2) tana «to turn an object» (N11: 195), terre to scramble and fall, to turn» (SI: 198), taba: «to turn, turn into (N11: 187), luherri «turn into» (SI: 358) in view of the similarity of the Russian, English and Bushman se­mantic models; doro «twist, pierce, drill, make fire, firestick, tinderbox» (SI:

28) . Compare: tara, ta(/a «shine, light (about lightning) (N1: 193), tala, ta — lata, talate «thunder» (NIII: 189), tali, tari «flame» (NIa: 189), toro, totdrro «twist, roll» (SI: 208), taba, tatyba, и. taa, tabe, tabi «to do, to make, work» (SI: 187). Compare Russian трут (trut) «tinder», тереть (teret ’) «to rub», труд (trud) «labor».

Ling.(4) — zolongisa «to turn» (RLFS: 78)


Sacral connotations of the proto-etymon are evident. See also TONGUE

To this may be added:

Nostr.(l) *t’urV «swift, hurry», SC *t’UrV «run, hurry», ST *t(h)ur «id.» (Starostin 1989, 189). Original source for Nostr. — (MS 332).


Nostr.(l) *galu «id.» (D2, 610).

M.(3) kura-kura «id.» (Po: 228).

255. TWO:

Nostr.(l) *tu”?/o (D2, 2243).

An(3) *duSa (Si: 270).

256. WAIT:

Port.(l) esperar «wait» (PRS: 358); Chech. (1)/eza «id.» (RChS: 167). An.(3) iciRci «id.» (Si.: 145).

Ling.(4) — zila «id.» (RLFS: 125).

UL sara «wait».

257. WART:

NC.(l) *ca“ntwV«wart» (Nik.-St.: 340).

Bushm.(2)gMto soa «id.» (SI: 52), lk”ottsn «id.» (SI: 339).

258. WASH:

Nostr.(l) *Ьи1У ~ *LugV«most probably “to wash, rinse”» (D2, 1269). M.(3) bilasan «rinsing of the clothes» (Po: 929). 147. WATER 1:

NC(1) *ха“пИЙьГ«water» (Nik.-St.: 1060).

Iranian(l) names of the rivers: Dunaj, Dnepr (Dnieper), Don, Dnestr. Bushm. (2) duko (may have relation to WATER 2), dum «river» (SIIc:

29) , dum «swim» (N11: 29), do «wash» (SVI: 26), llxa:, llxa «same» (N11: 630), kha, ka «swim» (CIII: 401), kha «water, rain» (SII: 423), xu: «swim» (SI: 686), IlkwaC/lkwaQma «wash off» (CII: 598).

An(3) *danaw «lake, pond» (P 83), danum «water» (Thurgood 351).

259. WATER 2:

Nostr.(l) *^EKu «water» (OS 139).

SB(3)*tfa:? «id» (E 62).

Amerind.(6) *?ok’wa «water, to drink» (RN 48).

260. WEAK:

Finn.(l) laimea «weak, inactive» (RFS: 128).

M.(l) lemah «weak», lamb at «slow» (Po: 248, 803).

261. WET

Nostr.(l) *sulA «wet» (OS ).

SB(3) *su:h «wet» (E: 564).

Malay(3) sungai «river» (P: 472).

262. WHITE 1:

S.-h.(l) *cah — «be white», Nostr.(l)*co/7?a «shimmer», SC(1) *cAjV «to shine, fire, light» (Orel 1995a 26).

Bushm.(2) hwehe «white» (Cl: 66), Ikhao «to shine» Ikhaa «clear, daz­zling, shining» (Cl: 311), MuLija «white» (Slla: 493), llxatyllxaQj «to be white» (SI: 632), k? au! k?au, n. lkau, k”ao «id.» (NIII: 417); g? ao h. k? ao, kau «id.» (Nil: 377).

Bushm.(2) sethaa «yellow» (Cl: 168), dzao «be greenish, light-colored, to shine» (Nil: 32), tsa «blue, pale yellow, bright green» (CII: 224), Igau, s. Ikau, /gai «yellow, pale blue, green» (N1: 276), /gan «yellowish green» (Nil: 275), !hu: /hum «yellow» (Nil: 290), lka7, s. tkain, tkainja «yellow unripe green» (Nil: 300), JkaQa «yellow» (SII: 229), tkeinja «be yellow, green, s. Ikei «shine» (SI: 308), Ikorre «yellow» (CII: 320),kau, s. k”ao «white, pale yellow» (N1, NIII: 413).

Malay(3) cahaya «light, shining» (Po: 60); kuning «yellow» (Po: 227).

Ling. (4) saa «light (adj.)» (RLFS: 306).


1) possibly some of the above reflexes stem from 14 (WHITE 2).

2) the development of the primary color distinction: whitish/dark(black) may have gone to the UL forms *kara vs. *cala, the former reflecting the color and cry of the dark (black) birds: crows and ravens.

263. WHITE 2:

Nostr.(l) *balka «to shine», S.-h.(l) *balag — «to light» (Orel 1995a, 11).

SB(3) *b0:? «white» (E: 15), Austroas.(3) *h jlak (Kruglyj-Enke. 2.25).

An.(3) buraq «white» (P 188). See PHALLOS 2.

264. WIDE:

Russ.(l) sirokij «id.»; Chech.(l) suira «id.» (RChS: 765); Hausa(l) faffada «id.» (RHS: 366).

265. WING:

Finn.(l) siipi «id.»

M.(3) sayap «id.», sirip «fin» (Po: 460, 428).

266. WISH:

Nostr.(l)*manu «to think, desire, conjure, request»; Amerind(6) *mVnV«to wish, love, seek» (RN 38).

Malay(3) mau «to wish, to want» (Po.: 282)

UL *manu «to wish»

267. WIND (see also COLD):

S.-h.(l) *sar-«wind», EC(1) *ccVrV«to freeze, ice» (Orel 1995A, 134).

Hung.(l) szel «wind» [se:l.

Bushm.(2) serre:, serreja, serritsn, s. serri «cold wind»; serri «be cold» (SI: 167); Ixorre: «cold (n.)» (SI: 365).

S В(3)*(%: / «wind» (E 62).

268. WINTER:

IE(1) *lqauero — «north, northern wind»; EC(1) *ccojwbilhV«winter, au­tumn» (Starostin, 1988, 5.10). Two reflexes of the lower level drew our at­tention Av.-And. *c:ibirV «autumn, winter», Tsez. *s:bibs(rV) «autumn» (Nik.-St.: 327), wich may be collated with «Russ. Sibir’ «cold country»(< Tatar), and Engl. (Lat.) severe.

Bushm.(2) saua, s. sau oka, auba «winter, winter time» (SIV: 165). Relatively cold and dry periods in southern Kalahari are meant.

269. WOMAN:

S.-h.(l) *kun — «woman, wife», Nostr.(l) *kiini «woman», SC(1) *qwEnV«id.», Enis.(l) *qVm «id.» (Orel 1995a, 81).

Bushm.(l) Ikay «woman» (SII: 300), Ike’ «woman, female» (SIV: 307). An.(3) *hincy «woman» (P 192).

270. WOOL:

IE(1)* НиэЬпа «wool» (Starostin 1988, 2 3).

EC(1) (A Lak.-Darg. isogloss) *balV (~-э-) «wool» (Nik.-St.: 287). The authors add: «А Lak.-Darg. isogloss, thus not very reliable» (ibidem.). The reliability of this etymon considerably increases, I think, in view of the external cognates. Later I found this:

DC (proto Dene-Caucasian)(l) */)//’■(‘ «hair (feather, whiskers)» (B: 5).[whatever phoneme Vi might mean],

Mlg. volo «hair» (RMS: 65), An(3) *bulu «feather» (P: 44).

Ambulas(5) wul «(white, grey) hair» (Am.: 90-91).

Commentary: When a Russian scholar sees a Malagasian volo «hair» and compares it with the Russian volos «hair», his hair stuck!

Such lucky conservatisms survive, though; other examples being, (eg.) suku (#57) or mata (#84).

271. YEAR:

S.-h.(l) *san — «year», SC(1) *swEnV «year, old» (Orel 1995a, 133). Eng.(l) senile (with a Latin etymology, of course. That was the first step. Later (in a few days) I knew Lithuanian form senas «old» (Al.: 494). Lat. and Lith. forms suggest an IE root sen — «old».

SB(3) *s3nam «year» (E 99).

111. YOUNG:

Lith.(l) jaunas «young» (Al.: 478).

Turkish geng «id.» (RtuS: 169)

Proto-Chukchee(l) «id.» (M: 260)

Chechen(l) zima «id.» (RChS: 291).

Ling.(4) elenge «id.» (RLFS: 193).

Yoruba(4) ewe «id.» (L: 150).

UL *z/na «young».


Finn.(l) kavtos «behavior» (RFS: 125).

IVI.(3) gay a «id.» (Po: 112).

274. BIRD:

Akk.(l) assuru «id.» (Mil., 6); Port.(l) passaro «id.» (PRS: 604); Lith.(l) paukstis «id.» Al: 518); Hausa(l) tsuntsu «id.» (RHS: 264); Chech.(l) olhazar «id.» (RChS: 540).

M.(3) burung «id.» (Po: 58).


Finn.(l) murtaa «to break», murhata «to kill» (RFS: 164, 165); Engl.(l) to murder: Port.(l) morder «to bite, sting»; matar «to kill» (PRS: 556, 534); Russ.(l) smert’ «death»; Hausa(l) mutu «to die» (RHS: 344).

M.(3) mematahkan «to break» (Po: 794) [me — and — kan — affixes]; mati «to die» (Po: 281); An(3) *matay «to die» (P, 26).

276. CHEW 2:

Nostr.(l) *rumV«id.» (D2, 1990).

M.(3) mengunvah «id.» (Po: 705).

277. COAST 1:

Port.(l) costa «id.» (Po: 243); Chech.(l) /ijist «id.» ( .’hS:" 3(). A

Portuguese word may have originated from a Non-Indoeuropean (Sino — Caucasian) substrate word.

278. COAST 2

Finn.(l) ranta «id.» (FRS: 218); Hung.(l) part «id.» (OMS I: 67).

M.(3) pantai «id.» (Po: 332).

Ling.(4) libongo «id.» (RLS: 42).

280. CORNER:

F. kulma: 273, M. sudut: 1076.

281. CORPSE:

Hausa(l) mushe «id.» (RHS: 335).

Khm.(3) khmaoc «id.»

M.(3) mayat«id.» (Po: 1069).

Suiahili(4) maiti (RSS: 600). Arab borrowing?

282. CROWD, TO:

Hung.(l) osszegyul «id.» (OMS bll:566). Base of the word is — gyul M.(3) kerumunan «a crowd» (Po: 1064). Base of the word is — rumu-

283. CURLY:

Russ.(l) kudrjavyj «id.»; Chech(l) gura «id.». (zybpa in cyrillics, RChS: 262).

M.(3) keriting «curly» (not about hair) (Po: 784).

284. DIG, TO:

Nostr.(l) *K, ajwV«id.» (St, 460).

M.(3) gali «id.» (Po: 108); An(3) *kali «id.» (P, 27).

285. DROP:

Hung.(l) csepp «id.» (OMS I: 619).

M.(3) link «id.» (Po: 523).

286. EDGE 1:

Russ.(l) kajma «border, selvage».

Khm.(3) ks:m «edge, selvage» (KRS: 148).

287. EDGE 2:

Nostr.(l) *dubV«edge, end» (D2, 498).

M.(3) tepi «edge» (Po: 310).

288. EVIL:

Lit.(l) zalingas «harmful» (Al.: 507); Russ.(l) zlo «evil»; Finn.(l) huono «bad» (RFS: 58); Est.(l) hath «id.» (ERS: 83). (Chech.(l) zulam «harm» (ChRS: 87).

Suahili(4) uovu «evil» (n.) (RSS: 178).


Finn.(l) rajahdys «explosion» (Ku: 75).

M.(3) letup «to explode, vspyhivat’ (about fire)»(Po: 254) Commentary: Some kinds of dry ball mushrooms exlode too, giving reasons for this etymon to be ancient.

290. FALL, TO 2

Russ.(l) padat’ «id.»; Finn.(l) pudota «id.» (RFS: 206); Hausa(l) fafia «id.» (RHS: 198).

Mlg.(3)potraka «fallen, tumbled» (MgRS: 370).

291. FAST:

Finn.(l) joutuisa «id.» ().

M.(3) laju «id.» (Po; 233).

292. FIRE 3:

Nostr.(l) *duli «id.» (D2,).

M.(3) suluh «torch» (Po: 470).


Finn.(l) joustava «id.» (RFS: 72).

M.(3) lentur «id.» (Po: 252).

293. FREE:

Finn.(l) vapaus «id.» (Ku: 767).

M.(3) lepas «id.» (Po: 252).

294. GLUE:

Finn.(l) lima «id.» (Ku: 443); Chech.(l)/a/cimc «id.» (RChS: 240). M.(3) lem «id.» (Po: 248); Mlg.(3)goma «id.» (RMgS: 187).

295. GRAVE:

Finn.(l) hauta (RFS: 48).

M.(3) lahad (Po 232).

296. GUARD:

Russ.(l) hranit’ «to keep, reserve»; horonit «to bury»; Hausa(l) kiyaya «to guard» (HRS: 357).

Khm.(3) kr0:i] «to guard» (KRS: 153).

297. HEAD:

Nostr.(l) *KaPVlV«occiput, skull» (D2, 1120); Nostr.(l) *gabV(I/IV) «head» (D2, 585).

PMP(3) *qulu «head» (D: 28); M.(3) kepala «id.» (Po: 202). Commentary: in Malay kepala is a borrowing from Sanscrit. Yet PMP *qulu stays and at least deserves attention.


Nostr.(l) *h/ogE «top, above (D2, 759); *ga? i ~ *ga? yV «high» (D2, 58);*KIEholka «green / blue, green plants» (D2, 858); *lhlawkla «light (lux), bright» (D2, 762).

German(l) hoch «high»; Mong.(l) /о/ «blue» (MRS IV: 149); T(l) go&«sky»(RTS: 187).

Khm.(3) khidw «blue», khpOh «high» (KRS: 117, 126); M.(3) hijau «green» (Po: 737).

M. tinggi «high» (Po: 656).

299. HORROR:

Finn.(l) hirmu «id.» (FRS: 117).

M.(3) seram «id.» (Po: 1079).

299. HUMP:

Russ.(l) gorb «hump»; Engl(l) hump.

Nostr.(l) *gub/pE «heap, hump, hunchback» (D2, 587); Nostr.(l) *gu"/?b/V«to bend» (D2, 589).

Khm.(3) кЛтЬак«cripple» (KRS: 77)

300. HUNGER:

Port.(l) emagrecer «to become thin» (from malnutrition) (PRS: 311); Engl.(l) meagre: Chech.(1) macalla «hungry» (RChS: 121).

Mlg.(3) mosary «id.» (RMgS: 96).

UL *maga «mighty, powerful», *magara «weak»; *-ra — negation postfix.

301. JOKE:

Finn.(l) lelucon «joke, anecdote» (Po: 248).

M.(3) Іеіккі «play, joke» (Ku: 133).

302. JUMP, TO:

Engl.(l) jump; Finn.(l) hypUhdellii, hypelld, Ьуррій «id.» (); Hung.(l) lopni «id.».

M.(3) lompat«id.» (Po: 260).

303. LONG:

Finn.(l) pi іксі «long» (FRS: 400).

M.(3) panjang «id.» (Po: 332).

304. LOOK AT 4:

Nostr.(l) *diha «to look at» (D2, 509).

M.(3) lihat «to look at, see» (Po: 255).

305. MALE:

Nostr.(l) *ga"ndu (D2, 643)

M.(3) jantan «male, manful» (Po: 166)

306. MELT:

Finn.(l) sulaa «id.» (Ku: 591).

M.(3) leleh «id.» (Po: 248).

307. MORE:

Finn.(l) — jempi, — sempi (Ku: 51).

M.(3) lebih (Po: 246).


Ruk(3) kbimtyr (R: 179).

Mlg.(3) holatra (RMgS: 101).

309. NEAR:

Nostr.(l) *dUIKIa «to approach, near» (D2, 519).

M.(3) dekat «near» (Po: 609).


Fr.(l) aver besoin «to need»; Hung.(l) bizony «for sure» Chech.(l) bilggal «for sure» (RChS: 299).

M.(3)perlu «it is necessary» (Po: 351).


Chech.(l) tame/ «id.» (RChS: 516).

An(3) *tanam «to taste, taste» (Si: 150).

Suahili(4) — tamu «pleasant, tasty»(RSS: 465).

UL *tamV«tasty».

312. POLE:

Nostr.(l) *gElV«stalk, twig» (D2, 611).

Chech.(l) g’ urkh «pole» (763);

M.(3)galah «id.» (Po: 1115).

313. QUIET:

Finn.(l) rauha «piece, quietness» (RFS: 220).

M.(3) lengang 1) «quiet», 2) «desolated» (Po: 250).

314. ROTTEN:

Lit.(l) puti «to rot» (Al: 507); Engl.(l)putrid.

M.(3) busuk «rotten, stinking; bad» (Po: 58).

315. ROCK:

Nostr.(l) *k’arV«id.» (St, 80).

M.(3) karang «coral» (Po: 186).

316. ROOT:

Nostr.(l) *ziru «id.» (D, 42).

Mlg.(3) ozatra «tendon» (RMgS: 129).


Nostr.(l) * z’ega «to eat, get satiated» (D, 78).

M.(3) kenyang «satiated, get satiated» (Po: 201).


Finn.(l) kirja «a book» (RFS: 99).

M.(3) surat «letter» (Po: 473).

Commentary: Both etymons ultimately origin from the word «to scratch» (in respective proto-languages). Finnish k regularly corresponds to Malay s (examples see Appendix II).

319. SEEK, TO:

Engl.(l) seek; Finn.(l) hakea «id.» (RFS: 434); Chech.(l) leha «id.» (RChS: 224).

M.(3) cari «id.» (Po: 64).

Suahili(4) — chakura «id.» (PSS: 193).

UL *sika «id.»

320. SEW, TO:

Russ.(l) sit’ «id.»; Hausa(l) tfinka «id.» (RHS: 366); Chech.(l) leg a «id.» (RChS: 765).

PMP(3) *CaqiS«id.» (Da: 34).

Suahili(4) shona «id.» (RSS: 648).

UL *sita «id.» May be it was a synonym with IIL* si la ‘to sit».

321. SHAME:

Engl.(l) shame.

Khm.(3) khmah, khmhm «id.» (KRS: 127, 128).

Mlg(3) hen tar a «id.» (RMgS: 321).

322. SLEEP, TO 2:

Finn.(l) nukkua «to sleep» (FRS: 578); Bashk.(l) joxlau «id.» (RBS: 757); Jap.(l) nemui «id.»; Chech.(l) nab «a dream» (while sleeping) (ChRS: 179).

Khm.(3) tjOtjuy «sleepiness» (KRS: 166)

323. SLEEVE:

Finn.(l) hiha «id.» (Ku: 750).

M.(3) lengan «arm, sleeve» (Po: 250).

307. SMELL:

Finn.(l) haju «smell» (RFS: 45); Nostr.(l) *nlilzwV«to smell» (D, 30); Chech.(l)/oza «id.» (RChS: 191).

Khmer(3) khldn (RKhS: 109); Mlg.(3)fofona (RMgS: 147).

325. SMOKE, TO:

Russ.(l) koptit’ «id.».

An(3) *Capa «to smoke meat, fish» (Si: 156).

326. SOFT 3:

Russ.(l) svoboda «freedom»; Engl.(l) soft; Hausa(l) sawaba «free­dom» (RHS: 292).

Khm.(3) khsA:i free, unstrained» (KRS: 134).

327. SPINE:

Engl.(l) spine; Russ, spina «back».

Khm.(3) khnAi] «back, spine» (KRS: 124); M.(3) punggung «back» (Po: 1042, 375).

328. SQUINT, TO:

Russ,(l) scurit’sja «id.» Finn.(l) siristaa «id.» V: 971).

UL *siri «id.».

329. STAND, TO:

Russ.(l) stojat’ «id.»; Finn.(l) seisoa «id.» (FRS: 236); Hausa(l) tsaya «id.» (RHS: 319).

Khm.(3) chO: «id.» (KRS: 251); Mlg.(3) mitsangana, mitsoro «id.» (RMgS: 474); mi — — prefix.

Suahili(4) — simama «id.» (RSS: 576).

330. STEAL, TO:

Nostr.(l) *k? uka «secret, steal» (St, 74).

M.(l) mencuri «to steal» (Po: 780); men — prefix.

331. STEEP:

Finn.(l) jyrkka «id.» (RFS: 456).

M.(3) curam «id.» (Po: 74).

Suahili(4) — kali (RSS: 233).


EngL(l) knoll «hill»; Hung.(l) halom «id.» (OMS II: 899); Tamil(l) kundru «id.» (RTS: 1071).

Khm.(3) kijol «stooped» (KRS: 85).

333. STREW:

Nostr.(l) *CipV«strew, pour, scatter» (D, 34).

M.(3) tumpah «to pour out» (534).

334. STRONG:

Finn.(l) kova «hard, strong» (RFS: 111).

M.(3) kuat«force, strong» (Po: 222)

335. STUMP:

Chech.(l) juhk «id.» (RChS: 423).

Khm.(3) khnac «id.» (RKS: 125); An(3) *tuqdd (Si: 146).

336. STUPID:

Russ, glupyj.

Khm.(3) khlaw «id.» (KRS: 131).

337. SWEAT:

PK(1) *cAzAk «id.» (Do,).

M.(3) keringat «id.» (Po: 205).

338. TAIL:

Nostr.(l)*kUdi «id.» (OSNJA 203).

SB(3) *tidrj «id.» (E, 625); M.(3) ekor «id.» (Po: 97).

339. TAKE, TO:

Nostr.(l) *zapA ~ *zapca «id.» (OSNJA 352).

M.(3) — gambil «id.» (Po: 613)

340. TASTY:

Nostr.(l) *dalV«tasty, sweet» (D2, 520).

M.(3) lezat«tasty» (Po: 255).

341. TEAR:

Finn.(l) kyynel«id.» (RFS: 123).

M.(3) tangis «crying» (Po: 491).


Russ.(l) tфlstyj «thick», tфnkij «thin»; Hung.(l) duzzadt «thick», sziik «narrow» (OMS II: 747-808); Chech.(l) stomma «thick» dutk’a «thin» (RChS: 678-679).

M.(3) te h ci I «thick», tipis «thin» (Po: 498, 522).

343. THIGH:

Nostr.(l) *pcozqa «id.» (OSNJA).

M.(3) paha «id.» (Po: 322).

344. TOOTH 2:

Nostr.(l) *rVklU? IV«hom» (D2, 1981).

Russian rog «hom»; Bashk.(l) tes «tooth» (RBS: 248); Turkish(l) dis «id.» (RtuS: 120); Tamil(l) kadi (RTS: 453). Dravidian initial *k corre­sponds to Nostratic */. Chechen(l) i^epz (RChS: 210), i^epzaui «bite» (RChS: 264).

M.(3) gigi (: 738).

Tai(3) gka t «bite» (low tone) (:182).

345. WILD:

Finn.(l) hurja «id.» (RFS: 399).

M.(3) liar «id.» (Po: 686).


As I wrote above (see to scratch, # 303) Finnish (F) k regularly corre­sponds to Malay (M) 5. All examples for Malay are taken from Po (see ab­breviations).


3) . F. kumma Russ, chudo M. kaget to wonder

F. kupera Russ, «vypuklyj» M. cembung

F. kurittaa «to punish» Russ, zhurit’; M. hukum Arabian?

F. kurttu «wrinkle, furrow» kerut

Kutsu «invitation» gandang «to invite»

F. kyhmy «knob»

F. kдmmen (123) «palm of a hand» tangan hand

Chech.(l) mA ’na (MablHa in cyrillic orphography) «sense, meaning» RChS: 625) M.(3) makna «sense, meaning» (Po: 272). Borrowed from Arab (see also Hausa) Arab must be makna

Eurasian and Austric form a specific group. All languages are related (enough to collate Finnish suku and Munangkabau suku).

Now let us write out all these reconstructions fo the UL

1, 56. «snake» kula, laga.

2. «lizard» kukula.

3, 4. «father» aba, tata.

5. «ancestor» avfl.

6, 7. «child» awa, cub of animals — kola.

8. «new» baru / bar a.

9. «cave, hole» gwra.

10. «mushroom» samaka.

11. sama «mouth» (see below), since — ka apeears to be a suffix in UL. 12-17. kera «horn, root, male, penis, hard, dry»; kara «black», kira «to

Shout», kora «bark», karu «far, bitter»; kura «short».

18-20. kila «stalk», kala «fish», kula «cold».

21-24. pala «stick; palasa «penis»; pela «to fear»; pula «two» (Ruhlen).

25. palaka «tormentous rain, tempest».

26. palanga «finger».

21. palaka «to shine, white».

28. baka «head», «to swell»; рака «dirt».

29. pilaka «stone knife».

30-31. muda «testicles, wise»; mata «eyes, see».

32. gopa «buttocks».

33. kaba (kura?) «turtle».

34. кара «to cover».

35-36. putt «vulva»,pata «sole of a foot».

37. gura «stag, animal, antelope».

38. gera «dawn».

39. guru «to flow».

40. kona «high sun (around zenith)».

41. sala «point of a spear or knife».

42-45. lama «flame»; lima «wrist, tongue»; luma «light, moon», lema «soft».

46-49. tapa «to beat»; tepa «warm», tara «thunder»; tala «to speak». Tupa, topa, tipa, tira.

50. tora «ear, hole».

51. dura «deaf».

51-53. zuka «beetle»; zuma «to buzz»; zima «to pinch»; zala «road», sila «power», sola salty. Sela — ?

54. soka «much, many».

55. mana / mar/a «big, strong».

57-58. кати «to bite»; kamaka «biting insect».

59. bisa «bitter».

60. pisa «urine».

61. para «to fly».

62. duha «to breathe».

63. suha «to breathe».

64. kura «short».

65. kasa «bone, hand, hair».

66-67. kuna «wild dog, jackal, wolf»; kena «to be wise, to know».

68. nara «the rising and setting sun»; kona — the sun in zenith.

69. paka «thigh», pika kind of a fish? Puka dirt?

70. sama mouth.

71. konsa «claw».

72. lapa «sole».

73. laka «bone».

74. wara «forest».

75. kawi «left».

76. kisa «small».

77. kuni «knee».

78. nika «neck»

79. gura «throat».

80. tika «small, soft (not loud)» taka?

81. gama «night».

82. gena «to give birth».

83. kuma «cloud».

84. muha «nose».

85. nasa «beak».

86. misa «bear».

87. bura «storm, drill».

88. tana «red».

89. guna «path».

90. zara «to bum».

91 .poha «to roast».

92. Kalaka «rope, cord»; kora — skin.

93. Ruta «to run».

94. Suha «to see» see to breathe suha saha seha siha?

95. Luka «eagle».

96. Toka «to sharpen».

97. Baka «side» bika, boka, buka.

98. Buka «to bend».

99. Lala «to sing, wail».

100. Tuka «skin».

101 tika «insect».

102 tura «swift» see gyors.

103 will a «hair, skin».

104 kana «tendon».

105. lepa «tongue».

106 lipa «sticky».

107. dana «water»?

108 weta «wet».

110. Sula «river».

111. Sipa «whisper».

112. Tama «top of the head».

113. «wind», rain, sky?

114. Tulu «teat, nipple».

115. Keta «to fall».

116. Saha «light».

117. Bela «white».

118. Lapa «flat, leaf».

119. Рака «leg».

120. Pana face, forehead».

121. Kisa «little, small» kesa, kusa?

122 попа «pus».

123. poha «to roast».

124. kira «to shout».

125. lema «soft».

126. tura «turn (v.), fast» (adj.).

127. sema «mouth».

128. bada «bad, disaster».

129. sara «wait».

130. bata «to beat».

131. hula «blind».

132. puka «foam».

133. mana «man».

134. nama «name».

135. kata «to cut».

136. manu «to wish».

UL keda «heart» An. qaCay «liver» (S.: 167).

Four quatro Sspat (Si: 173).

UL *karu «far» *kuru «short», *kura «crane».

So we have the following rows:

Kula «snake, cold», kala «fish», kola «child», Tala «stalk, a hair», kera «horn». That is in the UL a developed system of vowels can be recon­structed. It had to develop in the course of singing in the BP style. Add to these vowels consonants and you will have a human language of the type we now use. As to the consonsnts. They could develop through people mimicing natural «consonant imitations» like «karr!» of a crow or zzz… of a beetle, rrr… of a lion, plus liquids (m, n, 1).

Three musical style regions in Africa represent a single style and stand apart from the other areas. These are Bushmen, Pygmies and South-eastern Ethiopia (Omotic and some Kushitic people there). This emergence of this style (let us call it B-P-«Bushman-Pygmy style) can be dated by not later than 70 ka. This is the time of the divergence of the Khoesan and Pygmy populations. It is possible that there was no language at that time (one of the two scenarios). The major characteristic of this style is a choral polyphony without singing words. This polyphony requires developed system of vowel modification for the convenience of singind. Inteiject consonants (while not singing) between these vowels and you will have a language, as I said, which was probably developed by women speaking with their children. Most probably this was at first just one pair of speakers with later involvement of the closest young enough kin. Later the UL was «taken over» by males.

So musilang is most probable for the following reasons:

1) Music is structurally an analogue of speach (in terms of time processing of the notes. Notes are like phonemes. But music is obviously more ancient.

2) Both music and language are intrcatelly intertwined in the (through the processing) working of the both hemispheres.

Ergo musilang preceeded real language. We can stage an experiment. Produce musilang (I know how and see trough the tomograph how it will be processed, by which hemisphere predominantly (I agree to be a volunteer). So the rest of this article is stored in GL under Origin of Language title) it is called Heschl’s gyrys.

What are the phoneme-like sounds (usable as the future phonemrs that babies pronounce most easily? M-of course. They could be taught to mimic other phonemes, but largely in the world sample pof cultures they firstly pro­nounce mama. These are also the two sounds pronounced by the wild cows and bulls «maaa… or even muu…

On the other hand the crow definitely says kar or at least glottal stop + ar: «Hencefrom the first word for “black”, meaning also “krow”: kara. This word stayed in Nostratic and its decendants: Nostr. *kara, Turkish *kara, Russian chornyj “black”.

So we have the whole row of vowels, legacy of musilang, and conso­nants k, m, r.

I am convinced and will show later that the inventor of language (a woman talking to her baby) started combinatory experimenting with these phonemes. The results might have been as follows:

1. (1-5): *kara, *kera, *kora, *kira, *kura («black, horn, bark, cry, crane»).

2. (6-10): mara, mera, mira, mora, mura.

3. (11-15): kaka, rama, raka, kuma, koma etc.

Of course it is not necessary for all these combinations to have been the words in the UL. These rows just illustrate the principle of the YL (the origi­nal Young Lady — inventor of the languge) thinking. Such rows must be re­constructed not on the basis of pure combinatorics, but in junction with the concrete results of the comparative linguistic research.

Then we’ 11 have:

3. kala «fish», kela (?), *kula «cold», *kila «hair» (sg.), *kola «child»;

4. *laga «snake, soot-black», *liza «lick», *luga «to tell lies», *lega «to lie», *lagaka «frog/toad, lizard».

The whole inventory of the UL words sought out with such method looks like is given above